The Obamacare roll-out illustrates Obama’s presidency perfectly

Obamacare Healthcare.gov

Source: Yahoo news

The Obamacare roll-out illustrates Obama’s presidency perfectly.

Not Ready
Doesn’t Work
It’s Non-negotiable
Leadership is lacking
Costs more than it’s worth
Everyone is laughing about it
Supporters won’t admit the flaws
Long on promises, short on truth
Everyone wants to be exempt from it
Supporters lied about its effectiveness
If you don’t participate you get penalized
Product doesn’t measure up to the hype
Your security and privacy are highly at risk
It doesn’t function like we were told it would
People who voted for it, don’t want it anymore.
Supporters will say anything to get us to accept it
Premiums are unaffordable to average Americans
No one told supporters about the high deductibles
If you rebel against it, the IRS will come after you
Leaders are wavered (misspelling intended) or exempt
The majority of American’s do not see any need for it
You have to give up everything about you to participate
When you ask questions about it, no one knows anything
Government employees are exempt but the people are stuck with it
It works better for illegal aliens & foreigners than it does American citizens
If you don’t buy into it, the government comes after you for punitive damages

We see during this partial government shutdown the main priority of the government under the administration of Obama is to harm the American people. Just imagine if even more of the economy & nation could be affected by Obama’s punitive measures against the American people during the shutdown.

There should be no doubt now in anyone’s minds with Obama’s closing memorials, ocean, national parks, etc., Denying our warrior’s family’s the death benefits promised by a grateful Nation? He had his National Park Service even hold people vacationing in Yellowstone at gun point, wouldn’t let them leave the hotel they were staying in to even go outside? Opens the Washington Mall for an illegal alien demonstration, yet blocks the Honor Flight WWII Vets from visiting the memorial built in their honor? Just to try to hurt US during this government shutdown? Let’s not forget he closed the White House to school children’s tours after he got the sequestration cuts that he and his admin came up with. The tours are still to this day closed, even after private individuals stepped forward to pay for the tours. There can be no doubt Barack Obama is trying to hurt U.S.!

There are times that come to Nations, when the petty divisions no longer matter. In these times it is imperative for men to choose what side they will be on, where there is no middle ground, where the contrast is so clearly defined that it becomes right versus wrong, and good versus evil.

I think we have come to such a time in this nation, where men must stand and be counted, or be counted on for nothing. If you are nothing, then nothing is where you will stand, and you will be nothing but swept aside when the counting is done.

So in these days of choosing, let us choose wisely the course which we take, for if we are to stand for good, we must stand together or fall alone and without pity among the ruins of society. Which side will you choose? God and Liberty, or man and tyranny?

You will smile here at the consistency of those democratists who, when they are not on their guard, treat the humbler part of the community with the greatest contempt, whilst, at the same time they pretend to make them the depositories of all power. ~ Edmund Burke

House of Representatives: The Power of the Public Purse

American People! Please listen to words of wisdom from the Founding Fathers. For too long we have been giving up our power in Congress and / or letting our Representatives in the House give up our power, not only to the Executive Branch, but also to the Senate and the Courts. Please contact your representatives and let them know this has to stop.

From Thomas Jefferson Defines What A True Republic Is!

“It was to escape the oppression resulting from governments controlled by the select few, so often ruling under the assumption that “might makes right,” that gave birth to republics. Monarchial rulers refuse to recognize their accountability to the people governed by them. In a republic the converse is the rule. The tenure of office may be for a short or a long period, or even for life, yet those in office are at all times answerable, either directly or indirectly, to the people, and in proportion to their responsibility to those for whom they may be the public agents, and the nearer the power to enact laws and control public servants lies with the great body of the people the more nearly does a government take unto itself the form of a republic—not in name alone, but in fact.”

The House of Representatives, are the closest to the American people because they are up for re-election every 2 years, instead of 6 like the Senate and 4 like the President. This  is also the reason the House of Representatives have the  Power of the Purse, because they are more accountable to the people and it is through the House of Reps that the people are supposed to be able to weld that power by defunding something the President is doing that the people disagree with.

Please continue to read Jefferson on Republics and the key to stopping activists judges who usurp the peoples authority on too many issues. Also see our articles on the Constitution Article 1 and Constitution Article 2  The founding fathers put a lot of symbolism into the Founding Documents, it is very important for the American people to understand this. Please help us educate the American people by sharing this information with others.

Constitution: Article I; Sec. vii. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments, as on other bills.

Stock Photo of the Consitution of the United States and Feather Quill

House of Representatives, The Peoples Power

This restriction in regard to the raising of money, is founded on the principle that the House of Representatives is strictly the representation of the people, and is intended to prevent undue appropriation of money, which might be made by a house less dependent on the people.

The house of representatives of the United States is the rightful purse holder of the nation; and when it shall lose this original and most important feature in its constitution, the public good must become a creature of party and passion. The public purse or power of appropriations: a power which, certainly, it was never intended to vest in any one man, though a president of the United States. It is a fundamental principle, in a free government, that the immediate representatives of the people should keep the purse strings, and should have the constant and supreme control of the public funds. The Constitution of the United States fully recognizes this important principle. The guardianship of the public purse is the most important privilege and sacred duty of the House.

It is clear, that the representatives of the people, having the sole right to assess taxes, must naturally possess the power of disposing of their proceeds. This principle is so fully established, that its operation should never be brought into question. The people, surely, must have a right to disburse their own money; they are capable of being their own guardians.  The power of the sword and the purse cannot be welded by the same hand, a doctrine which, at once, strikes at the very root of the representative system, and casts into the hands of the executive officer a tremendous power. It is impossible that any president should know the will and wishes of the people so well as their members of congress, expressly elected or appointed to carry such wants and wishes into the general government; and, as before observed, those who pay the taxes have an unalienable control over their disbursements, except in a government purely despotic.

Representatives are bound, as members of congress, to act for the general good of the country. Their principal duties are to check and reform abuses of the administration; to redress public and private grievances to watch over the public expenditure; to enforce by their power of inquiry and impeachment a pure administration of justice in all departments; to assist in framing wise laws; and, finally, to preserve and promote, by every constitutional means, the freedom and prosperity of the great body of the people. The power and privileges of this part of the legislature are commensurate to its great importance to the government.

The House of Representatives are the keepers of the public purse: all grants, subsidies, and taxes must originate with them; for it is a constitutional maxim, that taxation and representation go hand in hand; and that the people only have a right to tax themselves. By the power of withholding supplies, they have a strong control over the executive; and, by the constitution, they enjoy all the privileges necessary to their dignity and independence, and the unbiased discharge of their high functions. Though new laws may be proposed by any member of either house, the consent of all the three constituent parts of the legislature is necessary to make them binding on the subject; and, though any part of the legislature may, by withholding its consent, prevent the enactment of a law, it requires the agreement of the three to repeal an existing statute.

James Madison: Federalist 58.
“The House of Representatives cannot only refuse, but they alone can propose, the supplies requisite for the support of government. They, in a word, hold the purse that powerful instrument by which we behold, in the history of the British Constitution, an infant and humble representation of the people gradually enlarging the sphere of its activity and importance, and finally reducing, as far as it seems to have wished, all the overgrown prerogatives of the other branches of the government. This power over the purse may, in fact, be regarded as the most complete and effectual weapon with which any constitution can arm the immediate representatives of the people, for obtaining a redress of every grievance, and for carrying into effect every just and salutary measure. But will not the House of Representatives be as much interested as the Senate in maintaining the government in its proper functions, and will they not therefore be unwilling to stake its existence or its reputation on the pliancy of the Senate? Or, if such a trial of firmness between the two branches were hazarded, would not the one be as likely first to yield as the other? These questions will create no difficulty with those who reflect that in all cases the smaller the number, and the more permanent and conspicuous the station, of men in power, the stronger must be the interest which they will individually feel in whatever concerns the government.”

John Locke: Second Treatise of Civil Government
“As usurpation is the exercise of power, which another hath a right to, so tyranny is the exercise of power beyond right, which nobody can have a right to. And this is making use of the power any one has in his hands, not for the good of those who are under it, but for his own private, separate advantage.—When the governor, however entitled, makes not the law, but his will, the rule; and his commands and actions are not directed to the preservation of the properties of his people, but the satisfaction of his own ambition, revenge, covetousness, or any other irregular passion. “

U.S. Senate and House of Representative Phone Numbers and Contact Info by State

NOTE: I HAVE NOT UPDATED THE NAMES AND CONTACT INFORMATION FOR THE 114th CONGRESS. IF YOU CHANGED CONGRESSMAN. TRY THE PHONE NUMBER OF THE REPRESENTATIVE YOU REPLACED THEM WITH! I WILL UPDATE ALL CONTACT INFORMATION AS SOON AS IT IS ALL AVAILABLE.

United States Senate and House of Representative Phone Numbers by State with a synopsis of Congressional Powers

 

Since the Congress and President seem to be having a hard time hearing the American citizens on various issues, I am providing phone numbers, twitter, facebook and email accounts for you to be able to contact each of your representatives with your concerns. Thereby also making it easier for your representatives to listen to you. Feel free to contact them early and often. Since members of Congress have been misleading people about their Constitutional powers, I am also including a synopsis of their powers.

Congressional Powers Under The Constitution: Distinct powers of the two houses. The House of Representatives @HouseFloor has the sole right of impeachment, that is, the right or power to accuse officers of the government for maladministration,malfeasance, or for crimes, offenses, or neglect of duty in their offices.

The @Senate has the sole right and power to try offenders impeached.

Each House is the judge of the elections, returns, and qualifications of its own members; each determines the rules of its proceedings, and punishes or expels its own members for disorderly conduct.

Senators and representatives receive a compensation for their services which is ascertained by law. They are privileged from arrest, except for treason, felony, or breach of the peace, during their attendance in the session, and in going to and returning from the same.

Officers of government cannot hold a seat in either house. Learn more about the Constitution here.

Senate_Seal US SENATE LOGOSenate Phone Numbers by State:

Alaska
Begich, Mark – (D – AK) (202) 224-3004 Fax: 202-224-2354
Murkowski, Lisa – (R – AK) (202) 224-6665 Fax: 202-224-5301

Alabama
Jeff Sessions –  @SenatorSessions (R – AL) (202) 224-4124 Fax: 202-224-3149 Web Site Montgomery: (334) 244-7017
Richard C. Shelby – @SenShelbyPress – (R – AL) (202) 224-5744 Fax: 202-224-3416 Web Site Tuscaloosa: (205) 759-5047

Arkansas
John Boozman –  @JohnBoozman (R – AR) (202) 224-4843 Fax: 202-228-1371 Web Site Lowell: (479) 725-0400
Mark L. Pryor – @SenMarkPryor (D – AR) (202) 224-2353 Fax: 202-228-0908 Web Site Little Rock: (501) 324-6336

Arizona
Jeff Flake– @JeffFlake (R – AZ) (202) 224-4521 Fax: 202-228-0515 Web Site Mesa: (480) 833-0092
John McCain – @SenJohnMcCain (R – AZ) (202) 224-2235 Fax: 202-228-2862 Web Site Phoenix: (602) 952-2410

California
Barbara Boxer – @BarbaraBoxer (D – CA) (202) 224-3553 Fax: 202) 224-0454 Web Site San Francisco: (415) 403-0100
Dianne Feinstein – @SenFeinstein (D – CA) (202) 224-3841 Fax: 202-228-3954 Web Site San Francisco: (415) 393-0707

Colorado
Michael F. Bennet – @SenBennetCO (D – CO) (202) 224-5852 Fax: 202-224-1933 Web Site Denver: (303) 455-7600
Mark Udall – @MarkUdall (D – CO) (202) 224-5941 Fax: 202-224-6471 Web Site Denver: (303) 650-7820

Connecticut
Richard Blumenthal – @SenBlumenthal (D – CT) (202) 224-2823 Fax: 202-224-6593 Web Site Hartford: (860) 258-6940
Christopher Murphy – @ChrisMurphyCT (D – CT) (202) 224-4041 Fax: 202-224-9750 Web Site Boston: (617) 565-8519

Delaware
Thomas R. Carper  – @SenatorCarper (D – DE) (202) 224-2441 Fax: 202-228-2190 Web Site Dover: (302) 674-3308
Christopher A. Coons –  @ChrisCoons (D – DE) (202) 224-5042 Fax: 202-228-3075 Web Site Wilmington: (302) 573-6345

Florida
Bill Nelson – @SenBillNelson (D – FL) (202) 224-5274 Fax: 202-228-2183 Web Site Orlando: (888) 671-4091
Marco Rubio – @marcorubio (R – FL) (202) 224-3041 Fax: 202-228-0285 Web Site Orlando: (407) 254-2573

Georgia
Saxby Chambliss – @SaxbyChambliss (R – GA) (202) 224-3521 Fax 202-224-0103 Web Site Atlanta: (770) 763-9090
Johnny Isakson – @SenatorIsakson (R – GA) (202) 224-3643 Fax: 202-228-2090 Web Site Atlanta: (770) 661-0999

Hawaii
Mazie K. Hirono – @maziehirono (D – HI) (202) 224-6361 Fax: 202-224-2126 Web Site Honolulu: (808) 541-1986
Brian Schatz – @SenBrianSchatz (D – HI) (202) 224-3934 Fax: 202-228-1153  Honolulu: (808) 541-2542

Iowa
Chuck Grassley  – @ChuckGrassley (R – IA) (202) 224-3744 Fax: 202-224-6020 Web Site Des Moines: (515) 288-1145
Tom Harkin – @SenatorHarkin (D – IA) (202) 224-3254 Fax: 202-224-9369 Web Site Des Moines: (515) 284-4574

Idaho
Mike Crapo  – @MikeCrapo (R – ID) (202) 224-6142 Fax: 202-228-1375 Web Site Boise: (208) 334-1776
James E. Risch  – @SenatorRisch (R – ID) (202) 224-2752 Fax: 202-228-1067 Web Site Boise: (208) 342-7985

Illinois
Richard (Dick) J. Durbin – @SenatorDurbin (D – IL) (202) 224-2152 Fax: 202-228-0400 Web Site Chicago: (312) 353-4952
Mark Kirk – @SenatorKirk (R – IL) (202) 224-2854 Fax: 202-228-4611 Web Site Chicago: (312) 886-3506

Indiana
Daniel Coats  – @SenDanCoats (R – IN) (202) 224-5623 Fax: (202) 228-1820 Web Site Indianapolis: (317) 554-0750
Joe Donnelly – @SenDonnelly (D – IN) (202) 224-4814 Fax: 202-228-0360 Web Site South Bend: (574) 288-2780

Kansas
Jerry Moran  –  @JerryMoran (R – KS) (202) 224-6521 Fax: 202-228-6966 Web Site Olathe: (913) 393-0711
Pat Roberts  –  @SenPatRoberts (R – KS) (202) 224-4774 Fax: 202-224-3514 Web Site Overland Park: (913) 451-9343

Kentucky
Mitch McConnell  – @McConnellPress  (R – KY) (202) 224-2541 Fax: 202-224-2499 Web Site Louisville: (502) 582-6304
Rand Paul  – @SenRandPaul (R – KY) (202) 224-4343 Fax: 202-228-1373 Web Site Bowlling Green: (270) 782-8303

Louisiana
Mary L. Landrieu – @marylandrieu (D – LA) (202) 224-5824 Fax: 202-224-9735 Web Site New Orleans: (504) 589-2427
David Vitter  – @DavidVitter (R – LA) (202) 224-4623 Fax: 202-228-2577 Web Site Lafayette: (337) 262-6898

Massachusetts
William M. Cowan – @SenMoCowan (D – MA) (202) 224-2742 Fax: 202-224-8525
Elizabeth Warren – @elizabethforma (D – MA) (202) 224-4543 Fax: 202-228-2646 Web Site Boston: (617) 565-3170

Maryland
Benjamin L. Cardin – @SenatorCardin (D – MD) (202) 224-4524 Fax: 202-224-1651 Web Site Baltimore: (410) 962-4436
Barbara A. Mikulski – @SenatorBarb (D – MD) (202) 224-4654 Fax: 202-224-8858 Web Site Baltimore: (410) 962-4510

Maine
Susan M. Collins – @SenatorCollins (R – ME) (202) 224-2523 Fax: 202-224-2693 Web Site Bangor: (207) 945-0417
Angus S. King, Jr. – @SenAngusKing (I – ME) (202) 224-5344 Fax: 202-224-1946 Web Site Auburn: (207) 786-2451

Michigan
Carl Levin – @SenCarlLevin (D – MI) (202) 224-6221 Fax: 202-224-1388 Web Site Detroit: (313) 226-6020
Debbie Stabenow – @stabenow (D – MI) (202) 224-4822 Fax: 202-228-0325 Web SiteEast Lansing: (517) 203-1760

Minnesota
Al Franken – @alfranken (D – MN) (202) 224-5641 Fax: 202-224-1152 Web Site St. Paul: (651) 221-1016
Amy Klobuchar – @amyklobuchar (D – MN) (202) 224-3244 Fax: 202-228-2186 Web Site Minneapolis: (612) 727-5220

Missouri
Roy Blunt  –  @RoyBlunt (R – MO) (202) 224-5721 Fax: 202-224-8149 Web Site Springfield: (417) 877-7814
Claire McCaskill – @clairecmc (D – MO) (202) 224-6154 Fax: 202-228-6326 Web Site Kansas City: (816) 421-1639

Mississippi
Thad Cochran  –  @SenThadCochran (R – MS) (202) 224-5054 Fax: 202-224-9450 Web Site Jackson: (601) 965-4649
Roger F. Wicker – @SenatorWicker (R – MS) (202) 224-6253 Fax: 202-228-0378 Web Site Jackson: (601) 965-4644

Montana
Max Baucus – @MaxBaucus (D – MT) (202) 224-2651 Fax: 202-224-9412 Web Site Billings: (406) 657-6790
Jon Tester – @jontester (D – MT) (202) 224-2644 Fax: 202-224-8594 Web Site Helena: (406) 449-5401

North Carolina
Richard Burr  –  @SenatorBurr (R – NC) (202) 224-3154 Fax 202-228-2981 Web Site Winston-Salem: (800) 685-8916
Kay R. Hagan – @SenatorHagan (D – NC)(202) 224-6342 Fax: 202-228-2563 Web Site Greensboro: (336) 333-5311

North Dakota
Heidi Heitkamp – @SenatorHeitkamp (D – ND) (202) 224-2043 Fax: 202-224-7776 Web SiteBismarck: (701) 258-4648
John Hoeven – @SenJohnHoeven (R – ND) (202) 224-2551 Fax: 202-224-7999 Web Site Bismarck: (701) 250-4618

Nebraska
Deb Fischer  – @SenatorFischer (R – NE) (202) 224-6551 Fax: 202-228-0012 Web Site Omaha: (402) 391-3411
Mike Johanns  – @Mike_Johanns (R – NE)(202) 224-4224 Fax: 202-224-5213 Web Site Omaha: (402) 758-8981

New Hampshire
Kelly Ayotte – @KellyAyotte (R – NH) (202) 224-3324 Fax: 202-224-4952 Web Site Manchester: (603) 622-7979
Jeanne Shaheen – @SenatorShaheen (D – NH) (202) 224-2841 Fax: 202-228-4131 Web Site Manchester: (603) 647-7500

New Jersey
Jeff Chiesa – Email: Senator_Chiesa@Chiesa.Senate.gov (R – NJ) (202) 224-3224 Fax: 202-224-7981 Web Site
Robert Menendez – @SenatorMenendez (D – NJ) (202) 224-4744 Fax: 202-228-2197 Web Site Newark: (973) 645-3030

New Mexico
Martin Heinrich – @MartinHeinrich (D – NM) (202) 224-5521 Fax: 202-224-2852 Web Site Farmington: (502) 325-5030
Tom Udall – @SenatorTomUdall (D – NM) (202) 224-6621 Fax: 202-228-3261 Web Site Albuquerque: (505) 346-6791

Nevada
Dean Heller – @SenDeanHeller  (R – NV) (202) 224-6244 Fax: 202-228-6753 Web Site Las Vegas: (702) 388-6605
Harry Reid – @SenatorReid (D – NV) (202) 224-3542 Fax: 202-224-7327 Web Site Las Vegas: (702) 388-5020

New York
Kirsten E. Gillibrand – @SenGillibrand (D – NY) (202) 224-4451 Fax: 202-228-0282 Web Site New York: (212) 688-6262
Charles E. Schumer – @ChuckSchumer (D – NY) (202) 224-6542 Fax: 202-228-3027 Web Site New York: (212) 486-4430

Ohio
Sherrod Brown – @SenSherrodBrown (D – OH) (202) 224-2315 Fax: 202-224-6519 Web Site Cleveland: (216) 522-7272
Rob Portman  – @RobPortman (R – OH) (202) 224-3353 Fax: 202-228-1382 Web Site Columbus: (614) 469-6774

Oklahoma
Tom Coburn  – @TomCoburn (R – OK) (202) 224-5754 Fax: 202-224-6008 Web Site Tulsa: (918) 581-7651
James M. Inhofe –  @JimInhofe(R – OK) (202) 224-4721 Fax: 202-228-0380 Web Site Tulsa: (918) 748-5111

Oregon
Jeff Merkley – @SenJeffMerkley (D – OR) (202) 224-3753 Fax: 202-228-3997 Web Site Portland: (503) 326-3386
Ron Wyden – @RonWyden (D – OR) (202) 224-5244 Fax: 202-228-2717 Web Site Portland: (503) 326-7525

Pennsylvania
Robert P. Casey Jr. – @SenBobCasey (D – PA) (202) 224-6324 Fax: 202-228-0604 Web Site Harrisburg: (717) 231-7540
Patrick J. Toomey  – @SenToomey (R – PA) (202) 224-4254 Fax: 202-228-1229 Web Site Philadelphia: (215) 241-1090

Rhode Island
Jack Reed – @SenJackReed (D – RI) (202) 224-4642 Fax: 202-224-4680 Web Site Cranston: (401) 943-3100
Sheldon Whitehouse – @SenWhitehouse (D – RI) (202) 224-2921 Fax: 202-228-2853 Web Site Providence: (401) 453-5294

South Carolina
Lindsey Graham – @LindseyGrahamSC @GrahamBlog(R – SC) (202) 224-5972 Fax: 202-224-3808 Web Site Greenville: (864) 250-1417
Tim Scott  – @SenatorTimScott (R – SC) (202) 224-6121 Fax: 202-225-3407 Web Site Charleston: (843) 852-2222

South Dakota
Tim Johnson – @SenJohnsonSD (D – SD) (202) 224-5842 Fax: 202-228-5765 Web Site Sioux Falls: (605) 332-8896
John Thune  – @SenJohnThune (R – SD) (202) 224-2321 Fax: 202-228-5429 Web Site Sioux Falls: (605) 334-9596

Tennessee
Lamar Alexander – @SenAlexander (R – TN) (202) 224-4944 Fax: 202-228-3398 Web Site Nashville: (615) 736-5129
Bob Corker – @SenBobCorker (R – TN) (202) 224-3344 Fax: 202-228-1264 Web Site Chattanooga: (423) 756-2757

Texas
John Cornyn  – @JohnCornyn (R – TX) (202) 224-2934 Fax: 202-228-2856 Web Site Austin: (512) 469-6034
Ted Cruz – @SenTedCruz (R – TX) (202) 224-5922 Fax: 202-224-0776 Web Site Austin: (512) 916-5834

Utah
Orrin G. Hatch – @OrrinHatch (R – UT) (202) 224-5251 Fax: 202-224-6331 Web Site Salt Lake City: (801) 524-4380
Mike Lee – @SenMikeLee (R – UT) (202) 224-5444 Fax: 202-224-6717 Web Site Salt Lake City: (801) 524-5933

Virginia
Tim Kaine – @timkaine (D – VA) (202) 224-4024 Fax: 202-228-6363 Web Site Richmond: (804) 771-2221
Mark R. Warner – @MarkWarner (D – VA) (202) 224-2023 Fax: 202-224-6295 Web Site Vienna: (703) 442-0670

Vermont
Patrick J. Leahy – @SenatorLeahy (D – VT) (202) 224-4242 Fax: 202-224-3479 Web Site Burlington: (800) 642-3193
Bernard Sanders  – @SenSanders (I – VT) (202) 224-5141 Fax: 202-228-0776 Web Site Burlington: (800) 339-9834

Washington
Maria Cantwell – @CantwellPress (D – WA) (202) 224-3441 Fax: 202-228-0514 Web Site Seattle: (206) 220-6400
Patty Murray – @PattyMurray (D – WA) (202) 224-2621 Fax: 202-224-0238 Web Site Seattle: (206) 553-5545

Wisconsin
Tammy Baldwin – @SenatorBaldwin (D – WI) (202) 224-5653 Fax: 202-224-9787 Web Site Madison: (608) 264-5338
Ron Johnson  – @SenRonJohnson (R – WI) (202) 224-5323 Fax: 202-228-6965 Web Site Milwaukee: (414) 276-7282

West Virginia
Joe Manchin, III – @Sen_JoeManchin (D – WV) (202) 224-3954 Fax: 202-228-0002 Web Site Charleston: (304) 342-5855
John D. Rockefeller, IV – @SenRockefeller (D – WV)(202) 224-6472 Fax: 202-224-7665 Web Site Charleston: (304) 347-5372

Wyoming
John Barrasso – @SenJohnBarrasso (R – WY) (202) 224-6441 Fax: 202-224-1724 Web Site Casper: (307) 261-6413
Michael B. Enzi – @SenatorEnzi (R – WY) (202) 224-3424 Fax: 202-228-0359 Web Site Gillette: (307) 682-6268

US House of Representatives

House of Representative Phone Numbers and Committee Assignments

Sorry for the errors on the layout, pasted from word and it is what it is. The information is all there, just the alignment is messed up.

Alabama

District

Name/Webpage

Party

Phone

                Committee Assignment

1

Bonner, Jo

R

202-225-4931

Appropriations

2

Roby, Martha

R

202-225-2901

Agriculture
Armed Services
Education and the Workforce

3

Rogers (AL), Mike

R

202-225-3261

Agriculture
Armed Services
Homeland Security

4

Aderholt, Robert

R

202-225-4876

Appropriations

5

Brooks, Mo

R

202-225-4801

Armed Services
Foreign Affairs
Science, Space, and Technology

6

Bachus, Spencer

R

202-225-4921

Financial Services
Judiciary

7

Sewell, Terri A.

D

202-225-2665

Financial Services
Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence

Alaska

District

Name/Webpage

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

At Large

Young, Don

R

202-225-5765

Natural Resources
Transportation and Infrastructure

American Samoa

District

Name/Webpage

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

At Large

Faleomavaega, Eni F. H.

D

202-225-8577

Foreign Affairs
Natural Resources

Arizona

District

Name/Webpage

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Kirkpatrick, Ann

D

202-225-3361

Transportation and Infrastructure
Veterans’ Affairs

2

Barber, Ron

D

202-225-2542

Armed Services
Homeland Security
Small Business

3

Grijalva, Raul

D

202-225-2435

Education and the Workforce
Natural Resources

4

Gosar, Paul A.

R

202-225-2315

Natural Resources
Oversight and Government Reform

5

Salmon, Matt

R

202-225-2635

Education and the Workforce
Foreign Affairs

6

Schweikert, David

R

202-225-2190

Science, Space, and Technology
Small Business

7

Pastor, Ed

D

202-225-4065

Appropriations
Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence

8

Franks, Trent

R

202-225-4576

Armed Services
Judiciary

9

Sinema, Kyrsten

D

202-225-9888

Financial Services

Arkansas

District

Name/Webpage

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Crawford, Rick

R

202-225-4076

Agriculture
Transportation and Infrastructure

2

Griffin, Tim

R

202-225-2506

Ways and Means

3

Womack, Steve

R

202-225-4301

Appropriations

4

Cotton, Tom

R

202-225-3772

Financial Services
Foreign Affairs

California

District

Name/Webpage

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

LaMalfa, Doug

R

202-225-3076

Agriculture
Natural Resources

2

Huffman, Jared

D

202-225-5161

Budget
Natural Resources

3

Garamendi, John

D

202-225-1880

Agriculture
Armed Services
Transportation and Infrastructure

4

McClintock, Tom

R

202-225-2511

Budget
Natural Resources

5

Thompson, Mike

D

202-225-3311

Ways and Means
Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence

6

Matsui, Doris O.

D

202-225-7163

Energy and Commerce

7

Bera, Ami

D

202-225-5716

Foreign Affairs
Science, Space, and Technology

8

Cook, Paul

R

202-225-5861

Armed Services
Foreign Affairs
Veterans’ Affairs

9

McNerney, Jerry

D

202-225-1947

Energy and Commerce

10

Denham, Jeff

R

202-225-4540

Agriculture
Transportation and Infrastructure
Veterans’ Affairs

11

Miller, George

D

202-225-2095

Education and the Workforce

12

Pelosi, Nancy

D

202-225-4965

Democratic Leader

13

Lee, Barbara

D

202-225-2661

Appropriations
Budget

14

Speier, Jackie

D

202-225-3531

Armed Services
Oversight and Government Reform

15

Swalwell, Eric

D

202-225-5065

Homeland Security
Science, Space, and Technology

16

Costa, Jim

D

202-225-3341

Agriculture
Natural Resources

17

Honda, Mike

D

202-225-2631

Appropriations

18

Eshoo, Anna G.

D

202-225-8104

Energy and Commerce

19

Lofgren, Zoe

D

202-225-3072

House Administration
Judiciary
Science, Space, and Technology

20

Farr, Sam

D

202-225-2861

Appropriations

21

Valadao, David

R

202-225-4695

Appropriations

22

Nunes, Devin

R

202-225-2523

Ways and Means
Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence

23

McCarthy, Kevin

R

202-225-2915

Majority Whip
Financial Services

24

Capps, Lois

D

202-225-3601

Energy and Commerce

25

McKeon, Buck

R

202-225-1956

Armed Services, Chairman
Education and the Workforce

26

Brownley, Julia

D

202-225-5811

Science, Space, and Technology
Veterans’ Affairs

27

Chu, Judy

D

202-225-5464

Judiciary
Small Business

28

Schiff, Adam

D

202-225-4176

Appropriations
Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence

29

Cárdenas, Tony

D

202-225-6131

Budget
Natural Resources
Oversight and Government Reform

30

Sherman, Brad

D

202-225-5911

Financial Services
Foreign Affairs

31

Miller, Gary

R

202-225-3201

Financial Services
Transportation and Infrastructure

32

Napolitano, Grace

D

202-225-5256

Natural Resources
Transportation and Infrastructure

33

Waxman, Henry

D

202-225-3976

Energy and Commerce

34

Becerra, Xavier

D

202-225-6235

Ways and Means

35

Negrete McLeod, Gloria

D

202-225-6161

Agriculture
Veterans’ Affairs

36

Ruiz, Raul

D

202-225-5330

Natural Resources
Veterans’ Affairs

37

Bass, Karen

D

202-225-7084

Foreign Affairs
Judiciary

38

Sanchez, Linda

D

202-225-6676

Ethics
Ways and Means

39

Royce, Ed

R

202-225-4111

Foreign Affairs, Chairman
Financial Services

40

Roybal-Allard, Lucille

D

202-225-1766

Appropriations

41

Takano, Mark

D

202-225-2305

Science, Space, and Technology
Veterans’ Affairs

42

Calvert, Ken

R

202-225-1986

Appropriations
Budget

43

Waters, Maxine

D

202-225-2201

Financial Services

44

Hahn, Janice

D

202-225-8220

Small Business
Transportation and Infrastructure

45

Campbell, John

R

202-225-5611

Budget
Financial Services

46

Sanchez, Loretta

D

202-225-2965

Armed Services
Homeland Security

47

Lowenthal, Alan

D

202-225-7924

Foreign Affairs
Natural Resources

48

Rohrabacher, Dana

R

202-225-2415

Foreign Affairs
Science, Space, and Technology

49

Issa, Darrell

R

202-225-3906

Oversight and Government Reform, Chairman
Judiciary

50

Hunter, Duncan D.

R

202-225-5672

Armed Services
Education and the Workforce
Transportation and Infrastructure

51

Vargas, Juan

D

202-225-8045

Agriculture
Foreign Affairs
House Administration

52

Peters, Scott

D

202-225-0508

Armed Services
Science, Space, and Technology

53

Davis, Susan

D

202-225-2040

Armed Services
Education and the Workforce

Colorado

District

Name/Webpage

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

DeGette, Diana

D

202-225-4431

Energy and Commerce

2

Polis, Jared

D

202-225-2161

Education and the Workforce
Rules

3

Tipton, Scott

R

202-225-4761

Agriculture
Natural Resources
Small Business

4

Gardner, Cory

R

202-225-4676

Energy and Commerce

5

Lamborn, Doug

R

202-225-4422

Armed Services
Natural Resources
Veterans’ Affairs

6

Coffman, Mike

R

202-225-7882

Armed Services
Small Business
Veterans’ Affairs

7

Perlmutter, Ed

D

202-225-2645

Financial Services

Connecticut

District

Name/Webpage

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Larson, John B.

D

202-225-2265

Ways and Means

2

Courtney, Joe

D

202-225-2076

Agriculture
Armed Services
Education and the Workforce

3

DeLauro, Rosa L.

D

202-225-3661

Appropriations

4

Himes, Jim

D

202-225-5541

Financial Services
Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence

5

Esty, Elizabeth

D

202-225-4476

Science, Space, and Technology
Transportation and Infrastructure

Delaware

District

Name/Webpage

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

At Large

Carney, John

D

202-225-4165

Financial Services

District of Columbia

District

Name/Webpage

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

At Large

Norton, Eleanor Holmes

D

202-225-8050

Oversight and Government Reform
Transportation and Infrastructure

Florida

District

Name/Webpage

Party

Phone

                          Committee Assignment

1

Miller, Jeff

R

202-225-4136

Veterans’ Affairs, Chairman
Armed Services
Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence

2

Southerland, Steve

R

202-225-5235

Natural Resources
Transportation and Infrastructure

3

Yoho, Ted

R

202-225-5744

Agriculture
Foreign Affairs

4

Crenshaw, Ander

R

202-225-2501

Appropriations

5

Brown, Corrine

D

202-225-0123

Transportation and Infrastructure
Veterans’ Affairs

6

DeSantis, Ron

R

202-225-2706

Foreign Affairs
Judiciary
Oversight and Government Reform

7

Mica, John

R

202-225-4035

Oversight and Government Reform
Transportation and Infrastructure

 

8

 

Posey, Bill

 

R

 

202-225-3671

 

Financial Services
Science, Space, and Technology

9

Grayson, Alan

D

202-225-9889

Foreign Affairs
Science, Space, and Technology

10

Webster, Daniel

R

202-225-2176

Rules
Transportation and Infrastructure

11

Nugent, Richard

R

202-225-1002

Armed Services
House Administration
Rules

12

Bilirakis, Gus M.

R

202-225-5755

Energy and Commerce
Veterans’ Affairs

13

Young, C.W. Bill

R

202-225-5961

Appropriations

14

Castor, Kathy

D

202-225-3376

Budget
Energy and Commerce

15

Ross, Dennis

R

202-225-1252

Financial Services

16

Buchanan, Vern

R

202-225-5015

Ways and Means

17

Rooney, Tom

R

202-225-5792

Appropriations
Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence

18

Murphy, Patrick

D

202-225-3026

Financial Services
Small Business

19

Radel, Trey

R

202-225-2536

Foreign Affairs
Transportation and Infrastructure

20

Hastings, Alcee L.

D

202-225-1313


Rules

21

Deutch, Ted

D

202-225-3001

Ethics
Foreign Affairs
Judiciary

22

Frankel, Lois

D

202-225-9890

Foreign Affairs
Transportation and Infrastructure

23

Wasserman Schultz, Debbie

D

202-225-7931

Appropriations

24

Wilson, Frederica

D

202-225-4506

Education and the Workforce
Science, Space, and Technology

25

Diaz-Balart, Mario

R

202-225-4211

Appropriations

26

Garcia, Joe

D

202-225-2778

Judiciary
Natural Resources

27

Ros-Lehtinen, Ileana

R

202-225-3931

Foreign Affairs
Rules

Georgia

District

Name/Webpage

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Kingston, Jack

R

202-225-5831

Appropriations

2

Bishop Jr., Sanford D.

D

202-225-3631

Appropriations

3

Westmoreland, Lynn A.

R

202-225-5901

Financial Services
Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence

4

Johnson, Henry C. “Hank” Jr.

D

202-225-1605

Armed Services
Judiciary

5

Lewis, John

D

202-225-3801

Ways and Means

6

Price, Tom

R

202-225-4501

Budget
Education and the Workforce
Ways and Means

7

Woodall, Robert

R

202-225-4272

Budget
Oversight and Government Reform
Rules

8

Scott, Austin

R

202-225-6531

Agriculture
Armed Services

9

Collins, Doug

R

202-225-9893

Foreign Affairs
Judiciary
Oversight and Government Reform

10

Broun, Paul C.

R

202-225-4101

Homeland Security
Natural Resources
Science, Space, and Technology

11

Gingrey, Phil

R

202-225-2931

Energy and Commerce
House Administration

12

Barrow, John

D

202-225-2823

Energy and Commerce

13

Scott, David

D

202-225-2939

Agriculture
Financial Services

14

Graves, Tom

R

202-225-5211

Appropriations

Guam

District

Name/Webpage

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

At Large

Bordallo, Madeleine

D

202-225-1188

Armed Services
Natural Resources

Hawaii

District

Name/Webpage

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Hanabusa, Colleen

D

202-225-2726

Armed Services
Natural Resources

2

Gabbard, Tulsi

D

202-225-4906

Foreign Affairs
Homeland Security

Idaho

District

Name/Webpage

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Labrador, Raul R.

R

202-225-6611

Judiciary
Natural Resources

2

Simpson, Mike

R

202-225-5531

Appropriations

Illinois

District

Name/Webpage

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Rush, Bobby L.

D

202-225-4372

Energy and Commerce

2

Kelly, Robin

D

202-225-0773

Oversight and Government Reform
Science, Space, and Technology

3

Lipinski, Daniel

D

202-225-5701

Science, Space, and Technology
Transportation and Infrastructure

4

Gutierrez, Luis

D

202-225-8203

Judiciary
Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence

5

Quigley, Mike

D

202-225-4061

Appropriations

6

Roskam, Peter J.

R

202-225-4561

Ways and Means

7

Davis, Danny K.

D

202-225-5006

Oversight and Government Reform
Ways and Means

8

Duckworth, Tammy

D

202-225-3711

Armed Services
Oversight and Government Reform

9

Schakowsky, Jan

D

202-225-2111

Energy and Commerce
Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence

10

Schneider, Brad

D

202-225-4835

Foreign Affairs
Small Business

11

Foster, Bill

D

202-225-3515

Financial Services

12

Enyart, William

D

202-225-5661

Agriculture
Armed Services

13

Davis, Rodney

R

202-225-2371

Agriculture
Transportation and Infrastructure

14

Hultgren, Randy

R

202-225-2976

Financial Services
Science, Space, and Technology

15

Shimkus, John

R

202-225-5271

Energy and Commerce

16

Kinzinger, Adam

R

202-225-3635

Energy and Commerce
Foreign Affairs

17

Bustos, Cheri

D

202-225-5905

Agriculture
Transportation and Infrastructure

18

Schock, Aaron

R

202-225-6201

House Administration
Ways and Means

Indiana

District

Name/Webpage

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Visclosky, Peter

D

202-225-2461

Appropriations

2

Walorski, Jackie

R

202-225-3915

Armed Services
Budget
Veterans’ Affairs

3

Stutzman, Marlin

R

202-225-4436

Financial Services

4

Rokita, Todd

R

202-225-5037

Budget
Education and the Workforce
House Administration

5

Brooks, Susan W.

R

202-225-2276

Education and the Workforce
Ethics
Homeland Security

6

Messer, Luke

R

202-225-3021

Budget
Education and the Workforce
Foreign Affairs

7

Carson, André

D

202-225-4011

Armed Services
Transportation and Infrastructure

8

Bucshon, Larry

R

202-225-4636

Education and the Workforce
Science, Space, and Technology
Transportation and Infrastructure

9

Young, Todd

R

202-225-5315

Ways and Means

Iowa

District

Name/Webpage

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Braley, Bruce L.

D

202-225-2911

Energy and Commerce

2

Loebsack, David

D

202-225-6576

Armed Services
Education and the Workforce

3

Latham, Tom

R

202-225-5476

Appropriations

4

King, Steve

R

202-225-4426

Agriculture
Judiciary
Small Business

Kansas

District

Name/Webpage

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Huelskamp, Tim

R

202-225-2715

Small Business
Veterans’ Affairs

2

Jenkins, Lynn

R

202-225-6601

Ways and Means

3

Yoder, Kevin

R

202-225-2865

Appropriations

4

Pompeo, Mike

R

202-225-6216

Energy and Commerce
Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence

Kentucky

District

Name/Webpage

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Whitfield, Ed

R

202-225-3115

Energy and Commerce

2

Guthrie, S. Brett

R

202-225-3501

Education and the Workforce
Energy and Commerce

3

Yarmuth, John A.

D

202-225-5401

Budget
Education and the Workforce

4

Massie, Thomas

R

202-225-3465

Oversight and Government Reform
Science, Space, and Technology
Transportation and Infrastructure

5

Rogers, Harold

R

202-225-4601

Appropriations, Chairman

6

Barr, Andy

R

202-225-4706

Financial Services

Louisiana

District

Name/Webpage

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Scalise, Steve

R

202-225-3015

Energy and Commerce

2

Richmond, Cedric

D

202-225-6636

Homeland Security
Judiciary

3

Boustany Jr., Charles W.

R

202-225-2031

Ways and Means

4

Fleming, John

R

202-225-2777

Armed Services
Natural Resources

5

Alexander, Rodney

R

202-225-8490

Appropriations

6

Cassidy, William

R

202-225-3901

Energy and Commerce

Maine

District

Name/Webpage

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Pingree, Chellie

D

202-225-6116

Appropriations

2

Michaud, Michael

D

202-225-6306

Transportation and Infrastructure
Veterans’ Affairs

Maryland

District

Name/Webpage

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Harris, Andy

R

202-225-5311

Appropriations

2

Ruppersberger, Dutch

D

202-225-3061

Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence

3

Sarbanes, John P.

D

202-225-4016

Energy and Commerce

4

Edwards, Donna F.

D

202-225-8699

Science, Space, and Technology
Transportation and Infrastructure

5

Hoyer, Steny H.

D

202-225-4131

Democratic Whip

6

Delaney, John

D

202-225-2721

Financial Services

7

Cummings, Elijah

D

202-225-4741

Oversight and Government Reform
Transportation and Infrastructure

8

Van Hollen, Chris

D

202-225-5341

Budget

Massachusetts

District

Name/Webpage

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Neal, Richard E.

D

202-225-5601

Ways and Means

2

McGovern, James

D

202-225-6101

Agriculture
Rules

3

Tsongas, Niki

D

202-225-3411

Armed Services
Natural Resources

4

Kennedy III, Joseph P.

D

202-225-5931

Foreign Affairs
Science, Space, and Technology

5

Markey, Ed

D

202-225-2836

Energy and Commerce
Natural Resources

6

Tierney, John

D

202-225-8020

Education and the Workforce
Oversight and Government Reform

7

Capuano, Michael E.

D

202-225-5111

Ethics
Financial Services
Transportation and Infrastructure

8

Lynch, Stephen F.

D

202-225-8273

Financial Services
Oversight and Government Reform

9

Keating, William

D

202-225-3111

Foreign Affairs
Homeland Security

Michigan

District

Name/Webpage

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Benishek, Dan

R

202-225-4735

Agriculture
Natural Resources
Veterans’ Affairs

2

Huizenga, Bill

R

202-225-4401

Financial Services

3

Amash, Justin

R

202-225-3831

Oversight and Government Reform

4

Camp, Dave

R

202-225-3561

Ways and Means, Chairman

5

Kildee, Daniel

D

202-225-3611

Financial Services

6

Upton, Fred

R

202-225-3761

Energy and Commerce, Chairman

7

Walberg, Tim

R

202-225-6276

Education and the Workforce
Oversight and Government Reform

8

Rogers (MI), Mike

R

202-225-4872

Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, Chairman
Energy and Commerce

9

Levin, Sander

D

202-225-4961

Ways and Means

10

Miller, Candice

R

202-225-2106

House Administration, Chairman
Homeland Security
Transportation and Infrastructure

11

Bentivolio, Kerry

R

202-225-8171

Oversight and Government Reform
Small Business

12

Dingell, John

D

202-225-4071

Energy and Commerce

13

Conyers Jr., John

D

202-225-5126

Judiciary

14

Peters, Gary

D

202-225-5802

Financial Services

Minnesota

District

Name/Webpage

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Walz, Timothy J.

D

202-225-2472

Agriculture
Transportation and Infrastructure
Veterans’ Affairs

2

Kline, John

R

202-225-2271

Education and the Workforce, Chairman
Armed Services

3

Paulsen, Erik

R

202-225-2871

Ways and Means

4

McCollum, Betty

D

202-225-6631

Appropriations

5

Ellison, Keith

D

202-225-4755

Financial Services

6

Bachmann, Michele

R

202-225-2331

Financial Services
Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence

7

Peterson, Collin C.

D

202-225-2165

Agriculture

8

Nolan, Rick

D

202-225-6211

Agriculture
Transportation and Infrastructure

Mississippi

District

Name/Webpage

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Nunnelee, Alan

R

202-225-4306

Appropriations
Budget

2

Thompson, Bennie G.

D

202-225-5876

Homeland Security

3

Harper, Gregg

R

202-225-5031

Energy and Commerce
House Administration

4

Palazzo, Steven

R

202-225-5772

Armed Services
Homeland Security
Science, Space, and Technology

Missouri

District

Name/Webpage

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Clay Jr., William “Lacy”

D

202-225-2406

Financial Services
Oversight and Government Reform

2

Wagner, Ann

R

202-225-1621

Financial Services

3

Luetkemeyer, Blaine

R

202-225-2956

Financial Services
Small Business

4

Hartzler, Vicky

R

202-225-2876

Agriculture
Armed Services
Budget

5

Cleaver, Emanuel

D

202-225-4535

Financial Services

6

Graves, Sam

R

202-225-7041

Small Business, Chairman
Transportation and Infrastructure

7

Long, Billy

R

202-225-6536

Energy and Commerce

8

Smith, Jason

R

202-225-4404

Montana

District

Name/Webpage

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

At Large

Daines, Steve

R

202-225-3211

Homeland Security
Natural Resources
Transportation and Infrastructure

Nebraska

District

Name/Webpage

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Fortenberry, Jeff

R

202-225-4806

Appropriations

2

Terry, Lee

R

202-225-4155

Energy and Commerce

3

Smith, Adrian

R

202-225-6435

Ways and Means

Nevada

District

Name/Webpage

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Titus, Dina

D

202-225-5965

Transportation and Infrastructure
Veterans’ Affairs

2

Amodei, Mark

R

202-225-6155

Judiciary
Natural Resources
Veterans’ Affairs

3

Heck, Joe

R

202-225-3252

Armed Services
Education and the Workforce
Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence

4

Horsford, Steven

D

202-225-9894

Homeland Security
Natural Resources
Oversight and Government Reform

New Hampshire

District

Name/Webpage

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Shea-Porter, Carol

D

202-225-5456

Armed Services
Natural Resources

2

Kuster, Ann

D

202-225-5206

Agriculture
Small Business
Veterans’ Affairs

New Jersey

District

Name/Webpage

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Andrews, Robert E.

D

202-225-6501

Armed Services
Education and the Workforce

2

LoBiondo, Frank

R

202-225-6572

Armed Services
Transportation and Infrastructure
Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence

3

Runyan, Jon

R

202-225-4765

Armed Services
Natural Resources
Veterans’ Affairs

4

Smith, Chris

R

202-225-3765

, Co-Chair
Foreign Affairs

5

Garrett, Scott

R

202-225-4465

Budget
Financial Services

6

Pallone Jr., Frank

D

202-225-4671

Energy and Commerce
Natural Resources

7

Lance, Leonard

R

202-225-5361

Energy and Commerce

8

Sires, Albio

D

202-225-7919

Foreign Affairs
Transportation and Infrastructure

9

Pascrell Jr., Bill

D

202-225-5751

Budget
Ways and Means

10

Payne Jr., Donald

D

202-225-3436

Homeland Security
Small Business

11

Frelinghuysen, Rodney

R

202-225-5034

Appropriations

12

Holt, Rush

D

202-225-5801

Education and the Workforce
Natural Resources

New Mexico

District

Name/Webpage

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Lujan Grisham, Michelle

D

202-225-6316

Agriculture
Budget
Oversight and Government Reform

2

Pearce, Steve

R

202-225-2365

Financial Services

3

Lujan, Ben R.

D

202-225-6190

Energy and Commerce

New York

District

Name/Webpage

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Bishop, Timothy

D

202-225-3826

Education and the Workforce
Transportation and Infrastructure

2

King, Pete

R

202-225-7896

Financial Services
Homeland Security
Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence

3

Israel, Steve

D

202-225-3335

4

McCarthy, Carolyn

D

202-225-5516

Education and the Workforce
Financial Services

5

Meeks, Gregory W.

D

202-225-3461

Financial Services
Foreign Affairs

6

Meng, Grace

D

202-225-2601

Foreign Affairs
Small Business

7

Velázquez, Nydia M.

D

202-225-2361

Financial Services
Small Business

8

Jeffries, Hakeem

D

202-225-5936

Budget
Judiciary

9

Clarke, Yvette D.

D

202-225-6231

Ethics
Homeland Security
Small Business

10

Nadler, Jerrold

D

202-225-5635

Judiciary
Transportation and Infrastructure

11

Grimm, Michael

R

202-225-3371

Financial Services

12

Maloney, Carolyn

D

202-225-7944

Financial Services
Oversight and Government Reform

13

Rangel, Charles B.

D

202-225-4365

Ways and Means

14

Crowley, Joseph

D

202-225-3965

Ways and Means

15

Serrano, José E.

D

202-225-4361

Appropriations

16

Engel, Eliot

D

202-225-2464

Energy and Commerce
Foreign Affairs

17

Lowey, Nita

D

202-225-6506

Appropriations

18

Maloney, Sean Patrick

D

202-225-5441

Agriculture
Transportation and Infrastructure

19

Gibson, Chris

R

202-225-5614

Agriculture
Armed Services

20

Tonko, Paul D.

D

202-225-5076

Energy and Commerce

21

Owens, Bill

D

202-225-4611

Appropriations

22

Hanna, Richard

R

202-225-3665

Small Business
Transportation and Infrastructure

23

Reed, Tom

R

202-225-3161

Ways and Means

24

Maffei, Daniel

D

202-225-3701

Armed Services
Science, Space, and Technology

25

Slaughter, Louise

D

202-225-3615

Rules

26

Higgins, Brian

D

202-225-3306

Foreign Affairs
Homeland Security

27

Collins, Chris

R

202-225-5265

Agriculture
Small Business

North Carolina

District

Name/Webpage

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Butterfield, G.K.

D

202-225-3101

Energy and Commerce

2

Ellmers, Renee

R

202-225-4531

Energy and Commerce

3

Jones, Walter B.

R

202-225-3415

Armed Services

4

Price, David

D

202-225-1784

Appropriations

5

Foxx, Virginia

R

202-225-2071

Education and the Workforce
Rules

6

Coble, Howard

R

202-225-3065

Judiciary
Transportation and Infrastructure

7

McIntyre, Mike

D

202-225-2731

Agriculture
Armed Services

8

Hudson, Richard

R

202-225-3715

Agriculture
Education and the Workforce
Homeland Security

9

Pittenger, Robert

R

202-225-1976

Financial Services

10

McHenry, Patrick T.

R

202-225-2576

Financial Services
Oversight and Government Reform

11

Meadows, Mark

R

202-225-6401

Foreign Affairs
Oversight and Government Reform
Transportation and Infrastructure

12

Watt, Mel

D

202-225-1510

Financial Services
Judiciary

13

Holding, George

R

202-225-3032

Foreign Affairs
Judiciary

North Dakota

District

Name/Webpage

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

At Large

Cramer, Kevin

R

202-225-2611

Natural Resources
Science, Space, and Technology

Northern Mariana Islands

District

Name/Webpage

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

At Large

Sablan, Gregorio

D

202-225-2646

Education and the Workforce
Natural Resources

Ohio

District

Name/Webpage

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Chabot, Steve

R

202-225-2216

Foreign Affairs
Judiciary
Small Business

2

Wenstrup, Brad

R

202-225-3164

Armed Services
Veterans’ Affairs

3

Beatty, Joyce

D

202-225-4324

Financial Services

4

Jordan, Jim

R

202-225-2676

Judiciary
Oversight and Government Reform

5

Latta, Robert E.

R

202-225-6405

Energy and Commerce

6

Johnson, Bill

R

202-225-5705

Energy and Commerce

7

Gibbs, Bob

R

202-225-6265

Agriculture
Transportation and Infrastructure

8

Boehner, John A.

R

202-225-6205

The Speaker

9

Kaptur, Marcy

D

202-225-4146

Appropriations

10

Turner, Michael

R

202-225-6465

Armed Services
Oversight and Government Reform

11

Fudge, Marcia L.

D

202-225-7032

Agriculture
Education and the Workforce

12

Tiberi, Pat

R

202-225-5355

Ways and Means

13

Ryan, Tim

D

202-225-5261

Appropriations
Budget

14

Joyce, David

R

202-225-5731

Appropriations

15

Stivers, Steve

R

202-225-2015

Financial Services

16

Renacci, Jim

R

202-225-3876

Ways and Means

Oklahoma

District

Name/Webpage

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Bridenstine, Jim

R

202-225-2211

Armed Services
Science, Space, and Technology

2

Mullin, Markwayne

R

202-225-2701

Natural Resources
Transportation and Infrastructure

3

Lucas, Frank

R

202-225-5565

Agriculture, Chairman
Financial Services
Science, Space, and Technology

4

Cole, Tom

R

202-225-6165

Appropriations
Budget
Rules

5

Lankford, James

R

202-225-2132

Budget
Oversight and Government Reform

Oregon

District

Name/Webpage

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Bonamici, Suzanne

D

202-225-0855

Education and the Workforce
Science, Space, and Technology

2

Walden, Greg

R

202-225-6730

Energy and Commerce

3

Blumenauer, Earl

D

202-225-4811

Budget
Ways and Means

4

DeFazio, Peter

D

202-225-6416

Natural Resources
Transportation and Infrastructure

5

Schrader, Kurt

D

202-225-5711

Agriculture
Budget
Small Business

Pennsylvania

District

Name/Webpage

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Brady, Robert

D

202-225-4731

Armed Services
House Administration

2

Fattah, Chaka

D

202-225-4001

Appropriations

3

Kelly, Mike

R

202-225-5406

Ways and Means

4

Perry, Scott

R

202-225-5836

Foreign Affairs
Homeland Security
Transportation and Infrastructure

5

Thompson, Glenn W.

R

202-225-5121

Agriculture
Education and the Workforce
Natural Resources

6

Gerlach, Jim

R

202-225-4315

Ways and Means

7

Meehan, Pat

R

202-225-2011

Ethics
Homeland Security
Oversight and Government Reform
Transportation and Infrastructure

8

Fitzpatrick, Michael G.

R

202-225-4276

Financial Services

9

Shuster, Bill

R

202-225-2431

Transportation and Infrastructure, Chairman
Armed Services

10

Marino, Tom

R

202-225-3731

Foreign Affairs
Homeland Security
Judiciary

11

Barletta, Lou

R

202-225-6511

Education and the Workforce
Homeland Security
Transportation and Infrastructure

12

Rothfus, Keith

R

202-225-2065

Financial Services

13

Schwartz, Allyson Y.

D

202-225-6111

Budget
Ways and Means

14

Doyle, Mike

D

202-225-2135

Energy and Commerce

15

Dent, Charles W.

R

202-225-6411

Appropriations
Ethics

16

Pitts, Joseph R.

R

202-225-2411

Energy and Commerce

17

Cartwright, Matthew

D

202-225-5546

Natural Resources
Oversight and Government Reform

18

Murphy, Tim

R

202-225-2301

Energy and Commerce

Puerto Rico

District

Name/Webpage

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

At Large

Pierluisi, Pedro

D

202-225-2615

Ethics
Judiciary
Natural Resources

Rhode Island

District

Name/Webpage

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Cicilline, David

D

202-225-4911

Budget
Foreign Affairs

2

Langevin, Jim

D

202-225-2735

Armed Services
Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence

South Carolina

District

Name/Webpage

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Sanford, Mark

R

202-225-3176

2

Wilson, Joe

R

202-225-2452

Armed Services
Education and the Workforce
Foreign Affairs

3

Duncan, Jeff

R

202-225-5301

Foreign Affairs
Homeland Security
Natural Resources

4

Gowdy, Trey

R

202-225-6030

Education and the Workforce
Ethics
Judiciary
Oversight and Government Reform

5

Mulvaney, Mick

R

202-225-5501

Financial Services
Small Business

6

Clyburn, James E.

D

202-225-3315

Assistant Democratic Leader

7

Rice, Tom

R

202-225-9895

Budget
Small Business
Transportation and Infrastructure

South Dakota

District

Name/Webpage

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

At Large

Noem, Kristi

R

202-225-2801

Agriculture
Armed Services

Tennessee

District

Name/Webpage

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Roe, Phil

R

202-225-6356

Education and the Workforce
Veterans’ Affairs

2

Duncan Jr., John J.

R

202-225-5435

Oversight and Government Reform
Transportation and Infrastructure

3

Fleischmann, Chuck

R

202-225-3271

Appropriations

4

DesJarlais, Scott

R

202-225-6831

Agriculture
Education and the Workforce
Oversight and Government Reform

5

Cooper, Jim

D

202-225-4311

Armed Services
Oversight and Government Reform

6

Black, Diane

R

202-225-4231

Budget
Ways and Means

7

Blackburn, Marsha

R

202-225-2811

Budget
Energy and Commerce

8

Fincher, Stephen

R

202-225-4714

Agriculture
Financial Services

9

Cohen, Steve

D

202-225-3265

Judiciary
Transportation and Infrastructure

Texas

District

Name/Webpage

Party

   Phone

    Committee Assignment

1

Gohmert, Louie

R

202-225-3035

Judiciary
Natural Resources

2

Poe, Ted

R

202-225-6565

Foreign Affairs
Judiciary

3

Johnson, Sam

R

202-225-4201

Ways and Means

4

Hall, Ralph M.

R

202-225-6673

Energy and Commerce
Science, Space, and Technology

5

Hensarling, Jeb

R

202-225-3484

Financial Services, Chairman

6

Barton, Joe

R

202-225-2002

Energy and Commerce

7

Culberson, John

R

202-225-2571

Appropriations

8

Brady, Kevin

R

202-225-4901

Ways and Means

9

Green, Al

D

202-225-7508

Financial Services

10

McCaul, Michael T.

R

202-225-2401

Homeland Security, Chairman
Foreign Affairs
Science, Space, and Technology

11

Conaway, K. Michael

R

202-225-3605

Ethics, Chairman
Agriculture
Armed Services
Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence

12

Granger, Kay

R

202-225-5071

Appropriations

13

Thornberry, Mac

R

202-225-3706

Armed Services
Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence

14

Weber, Randy

R

202-225-2831

Foreign Affairs
Science, Space, and Technology

15

Hinojosa, Rubén

D

202-225-2531

Education and the Workforce
Financial Services

16

O’Rourke, Beto

D

202-225-4831

Homeland Security
Veterans’ Affairs

17

Flores, Bill

R

202-225-6105

Budget
Natural Resources
Veterans’ Affairs

18

Jackson Lee, Sheila

D

202-225-3816

Homeland Security
Judiciary

19

Neugebauer, Randy

R

202-225-4005

Agriculture
Financial Services
Science, Space, and Technology

20

Castro, Joaquin

D

202-225-3236

Armed Services
Foreign Affairs

21

Smith, Lamar

R

202-225-4236

Science, Space, and Technology, Chairman
Homeland Security
Judiciary

22

Olson, Pete

R

202-225-5951

Energy and Commerce

23

Gallego, Pete

D

202-225-4511

Agriculture
Armed Services

24

Marchant, Kenny

R

202-225-6605

Education and the Workforce
Ways and Means

25

Williams, Roger

R

202-225-9896

Budget
Transportation and Infrastructure

26

Burgess, Michael

R

202-225-7772

Energy and Commerce
Rules

27

Farenthold, Blake

R

202-225-7742

Judiciary
Oversight and Government Reform
Transportation and Infrastructure

28

Cuellar, Henry

D

202-225-1640

Appropriations

29

Green, Gene

D

202-225-1688

Energy and Commerce

30

Johnson, Eddie Bernice

D

202-225-8885

Science, Space, and Technology
Transportation and Infrastructure

31

Carter, John

R

202-225-3864

Appropriations

32

Sessions, Pete

R

202-225-2231

Rules, Chairman

33

Veasey, Marc

D

202-225-9897

Armed Services
Science, Space, and Technology

34

Vela, Filemon

D

202-225-9901

Agriculture
Homeland Security

35

Doggett, Lloyd

D

202-225-4865

Ways and Means

36

Stockman, Steve

R

202-225-1555

Foreign Affairs
Science, Space, and Technology

Utah

District

Name/Webpage

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Bishop, Rob

R

202-225-0453

Armed Services
Natural Resources
Rules

2

Stewart, Chris

R

202-225-9730

Homeland Security
Natural Resources
Science, Space, and Technology

3

Chaffetz, Jason

R

202-225-7751

Homeland Security
Judiciary
Oversight and Government Reform

4

Matheson, Jim

D

202-225-3011

Energy and Commerce

Vermont

District

Name/Webpage

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

At Large

Welch, Peter

D

202-225-4115

Energy and Commerce
Oversight and Government Reform

Virgin Islands

District

Name/Webpage

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

At Large

Christensen, Donna M.,

D

202-225-1790

Energy and Commerce

Virginia

District

Name/Webpage

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Wittman, Robert J.

R

202-225-4261

Armed Services
Natural Resources

2

Rigell, Scott

R

202-225-4215

Armed Services
Budget

3

Scott, Robert C.

D

202-225-8351

Education and the Workforce
Judiciary

4

Forbes, J. Randy

R

202-225-6365

Armed Services
Judiciary

5

Hurt, Robert

R

202-225-4711

Financial Services

6

Goodlatte, Bob

R

202-225-5431

Judiciary, Chairman
Agriculture

7

Cantor, Eric

R

202-225-2815

Majority Leader

8

Moran, James

D

202-225-4376

Appropriations

9

Griffith, Morgan

R

202-225-3861

Energy and Commerce

10

Wolf, Frank

R

202-225-5136

Appropriations

11

Connolly, Gerald E. “Gerry”

D

202-225-1492

Foreign Affairs
Oversight and Government Reform

Washington

District

Name/Webpage

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

DelBene, Suzan

D

202-225-6311

Agriculture
Judiciary

2

Larsen, Rick

D

202-225-2605

Armed Services
Transportation and Infrastructure

3

Herrera Beutler, Jaime

R

202-225-3536

Appropriations
Small Business

4

Hastings, Doc

R

202-225-5816

Natural Resources, Chairman
Oversight and Government Reform

5

McMorris Rodgers, Cathy

R

202-225-2006

Energy and Commerce

6

Kilmer, Derek

D

202-225-5916

Armed Services
Science, Space, and Technology

7

McDermott, Jim

D

202-225-3106

Budget
Ways and Means

8

Reichert, David G.

R

202-225-7761

Ways and Means

9

Smith, Adam

D

202-225-8901

Armed Services

10

Heck, Denny

D

202-225-9740

Financial Services

West Virginia

District

Name/Webpage

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

McKinley, David

R

202-225-4172

Energy and Commerce

2

Capito, Shelley Moore

R

202-225-2711

Financial Services
Transportation and Infrastructure

3

Rahall, Nick

D

202-225-3452

Transportation and Infrastructure

Wisconsin

District

Name/Webpage

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Ryan, Paul

R

202-225-3031

Budget, Chairman
Ways and Means

2

Pocan, Mark

D

202-225-2906

Budget
Oversight and Government Reform

3

Kind, Ron

D

202-225-5506

Ways and Means

4

Moore, Gwen

D

202-225-4572

Budget
Financial Services

5

Sensenbrenner, F. James

R

202-225-5101

Judiciary
Science, Space, and Technology

6

Petri, Thomas

R

202-225-2476

Education and the Workforce
Transportation and Infrastructure

7

Duffy, Sean P.

R

202-225-3365

Budget
Financial Services

8

Ribble, Reid

R

202-225-5665

Agriculture
Budget
Transportation and Infrastructure

Wyoming

District

Name/Webpage

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

At Large

Lummis, Cynthia M.

R

202-225-2311

Natural Resources
Oversight and Government Reform
Science, Space, and Technology

House of Representative Phone Numbers and Committee Assignments

Alabama

District

Name

Party

Phone

                Committee Assignment

1

Bonner, Jo

R

202-225-4931

Appropriations

2

Roby, Martha

R

202-225-2901

Agriculture
Armed Services
Education and the Workforce

3

Rogers (AL), Mike

R

202-225-3261

Agriculture
Armed Services
Homeland Security

4

Aderholt, Robert

R

202-225-4876

Appropriations

5

Brooks, Mo

R

202-225-4801

Armed Services
Foreign Affairs
Science, Space, and Technology

6

Bachus, Spencer

R

202-225-4921

Financial Services
Judiciary

7

Sewell, Terri A.

D

202-225-2665

Financial Services
Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence

Alaska

District

Name

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

At Large

Young, Don

R

202-225-5765

Natural Resources
Transportation and Infrastructure

American Samoa

District

Name

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

At Large

Faleomavaega, Eni F. H.

D

202-225-8577

Foreign Affairs
Natural Resources

Arizona

District

Name

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Kirkpatrick, Ann

D

202-225-3361

Transportation and Infrastructure
Veterans’ Affairs

2

Barber, Ron

D

202-225-2542

Armed Services
Homeland Security
Small Business

3

Grijalva, Raul

D

202-225-2435

Education and the Workforce
Natural Resources

4

Gosar, Paul A.

R

202-225-2315

Natural Resources
Oversight and Government Reform

5

Salmon, Matt

R

202-225-2635

Education and the Workforce
Foreign Affairs

6

Schweikert, David

R

202-225-2190

Science, Space, and Technology
Small Business

7

Pastor, Ed

D

202-225-4065

Appropriations
Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence

8

Franks, Trent

R

202-225-4576

Armed Services
Judiciary

9

Sinema, Kyrsten

D

202-225-9888

Financial Services

Arkansas

District

Name

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Crawford, Rick

R

202-225-4076

Agriculture
Transportation and Infrastructure

2

Griffin, Tim

R

202-225-2506

Ways and Means

3

Womack, Steve

R

202-225-4301

Appropriations

4

Cotton, Tom

R

202-225-3772

Financial Services
Foreign Affairs

California

District

Name

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

LaMalfa, Doug

R

202-225-3076

Agriculture
Natural Resources

2

Huffman, Jared

D

202-225-5161

Budget
Natural Resources

3

Garamendi, John

D

202-225-1880

Agriculture
Armed Services
Transportation and Infrastructure

4

McClintock, Tom

R

202-225-2511

Budget
Natural Resources

5

Thompson, Mike

D

202-225-3311

Ways and Means
Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence

6

Matsui, Doris O.

D

202-225-7163

Energy and Commerce

7

Bera, Ami

D

202-225-5716

Foreign Affairs
Science, Space, and Technology

8

Cook, Paul

R

202-225-5861

Armed Services
Foreign Affairs
Veterans’ Affairs

9

McNerney, Jerry

D

202-225-1947

Energy and Commerce

10

Denham, Jeff

R

202-225-4540

Agriculture
Transportation and Infrastructure
Veterans’ Affairs

11

Miller, George

D

202-225-2095

Education and the Workforce

12

Pelosi, Nancy

D

202-225-4965

Democratic Leader

13

Lee, Barbara

D

202-225-2661

Appropriations
Budget

14

Speier, Jackie

D

202-225-3531

Armed Services
Oversight and Government Reform

15

Swalwell, Eric

D

202-225-5065

Homeland Security
Science, Space, and Technology

16

Costa, Jim

D

202-225-3341

Agriculture
Natural Resources

17

Honda, Mike

D

202-225-2631

Appropriations

18

Eshoo, Anna G.

D

202-225-8104

Energy and Commerce

19

Lofgren, Zoe

D

202-225-3072

House Administration
Judiciary
Science, Space, and Technology

20

Farr, Sam

D

202-225-2861

Appropriations

21

Valadao, David

R

202-225-4695

Appropriations

22

Nunes, Devin

R

202-225-2523

Ways and Means
Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence

23

McCarthy, Kevin

R

202-225-2915

Majority Whip
Financial Services

24

Capps, Lois

D

202-225-3601

Energy and Commerce

25

McKeon, Buck

R

202-225-1956

Armed Services, Chairman
Education and the Workforce

26

Brownley, Julia

D

202-225-5811

Science, Space, and Technology
Veterans’ Affairs

27

Chu, Judy

D

202-225-5464

Judiciary
Small Business

28

Schiff, Adam

D

202-225-4176

Appropriations
Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence

29

Cárdenas, Tony

D

202-225-6131

Budget
Natural Resources
Oversight and Government Reform

30

Sherman, Brad

D

202-225-5911

Financial Services
Foreign Affairs

31

Miller, Gary

R

202-225-3201

Financial Services
Transportation and Infrastructure

32

Napolitano, Grace

D

202-225-5256

Natural Resources
Transportation and Infrastructure

33

Waxman, Henry

D

202-225-3976

Energy and Commerce

34

Becerra, Xavier

D

202-225-6235

Ways and Means

35

Negrete McLeod, Gloria

D

202-225-6161

Agriculture
Veterans’ Affairs

36

Ruiz, Raul

D

202-225-5330

Natural Resources
Veterans’ Affairs

37

Bass, Karen

D

202-225-7084

Foreign Affairs
Judiciary

38

Sanchez, Linda

D

202-225-6676

Ethics
Ways and Means

39

Royce, Ed

R

202-225-4111

Foreign Affairs, Chairman
Financial Services

40

Roybal-Allard, Lucille

D

202-225-1766

Appropriations

41

Takano, Mark

D

202-225-2305

Science, Space, and Technology
Veterans’ Affairs

42

Calvert, Ken

R

202-225-1986

Appropriations
Budget

43

Waters, Maxine

D

202-225-2201

Financial Services

44

Hahn, Janice

D

202-225-8220

Small Business
Transportation and Infrastructure

45

Campbell, John

R

202-225-5611

Budget
Financial Services

46

Sanchez, Loretta

D

202-225-2965

Armed Services
Homeland Security

47

Lowenthal, Alan

D

202-225-7924

Foreign Affairs
Natural Resources

48

Rohrabacher, Dana

R

202-225-2415

Foreign Affairs
Science, Space, and Technology

49

Issa, Darrell

R

202-225-3906

Oversight and Government Reform, Chairman
Judiciary

50

Hunter, Duncan D.

R

202-225-5672

Armed Services
Education and the Workforce
Transportation and Infrastructure

51

Vargas, Juan

D

202-225-8045

Agriculture
Foreign Affairs
House Administration

52

Peters, Scott

D

202-225-0508

Armed Services
Science, Space, and Technology

53

Davis, Susan

D

202-225-2040

Armed Services
Education and the Workforce

Colorado

District

Name

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

DeGette, Diana

D

202-225-4431

Energy and Commerce

2

Polis, Jared

D

202-225-2161

Education and the Workforce
Rules

3

Tipton, Scott

R

202-225-4761

Agriculture
Natural Resources
Small Business

4

Gardner, Cory

R

202-225-4676

Energy and Commerce

5

Lamborn, Doug

R

202-225-4422

Armed Services
Natural Resources
Veterans’ Affairs

6

Coffman, Mike

R

202-225-7882

Armed Services
Small Business
Veterans’ Affairs

7

Perlmutter, Ed

D

202-225-2645

Financial Services

Connecticut

District

Name

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Larson, John B.

D

202-225-2265

Ways and Means

2

Courtney, Joe

D

202-225-2076

Agriculture
Armed Services
Education and the Workforce

3

DeLauro, Rosa L.

D

202-225-3661

Appropriations

4

Himes, Jim

D

202-225-5541

Financial Services
Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence

5

Esty, Elizabeth

D

202-225-4476

Science, Space, and Technology
Transportation and Infrastructure

Delaware

District

Name

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

At Large

Carney, John

D

202-225-4165

Financial Services

District of Columbia

District

Name

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

At Large

Norton, Eleanor Holmes

D

202-225-8050

Oversight and Government Reform
Transportation and Infrastructure

Florida

District

Name

Party

Phone

                          Committee Assignment

1

Miller, Jeff

R

202-225-4136

Veterans’ Affairs, Chairman
Armed Services
Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence

2

Southerland, Steve

R

202-225-5235

Natural Resources
Transportation and Infrastructure

3

Yoho, Ted

R

202-225-5744

Agriculture
Foreign Affairs

4

Crenshaw, Ander

R

202-225-2501

Appropriations

5

Brown, Corrine

D

202-225-0123

Transportation and Infrastructure
Veterans’ Affairs

6

DeSantis, Ron

R

202-225-2706

Foreign Affairs
Judiciary
Oversight and Government Reform

7

Mica, John

R

202-225-4035

Oversight and Government Reform
Transportation and Infrastructure

8

Posey, Bill

R

202-225-3671

Financial Services
Science, Space, and Technology

9

Grayson, Alan

D

202-225-9889

Foreign Affairs
Science, Space, and Technology

10

Webster, Daniel

R

202-225-2176

Rules
Transportation and Infrastructure

11

Nugent, Richard

R

202-225-1002

Armed Services
House Administration
Rules

12

Bilirakis, Gus M.

R

202-225-5755

Energy and Commerce
Veterans’ Affairs

13

Young, C.W. Bill

R

202-225-5961

Appropriations

14

Castor, Kathy

D

202-225-3376

Budget
Energy and Commerce

15

Ross, Dennis

R

202-225-1252

Financial Services

16

Buchanan, Vern

R

202-225-5015

Ways and Means

17

Rooney, Tom

R

202-225-5792

Appropriations
Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence

18

Murphy, Patrick

D

202-225-3026

Financial Services
Small Business

19

Radel, Trey

R

202-225-2536

Foreign Affairs
Transportation and Infrastructure

20

Hastings, Alcee L.

D

202-225-1313

Rules

21

Deutch, Ted

D

202-225-3001

Ethics
Foreign Affairs
Judiciary

22

Frankel, Lois

D

202-225-9890

Foreign Affairs
Transportation and Infrastructure

23

Wasserman Schultz, Debbie

D

202-225-7931

Appropriations

24

Wilson, Frederica

D

202-225-4506

Education and the Workforce
Science, Space, and Technology

25

Diaz-Balart, Mario

R

202-225-4211

Appropriations

26

Garcia, Joe

D

202-225-2778

Judiciary
Natural Resources

27

Ros-Lehtinen, Ileana

R

202-225-3931

Foreign Affairs
Rules

Georgia

District

Name

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Kingston, Jack

R

202-225-5831

Appropriations

2

Bishop Jr., Sanford D.

D

202-225-3631

Appropriations

3

Westmoreland, Lynn A.

R

202-225-5901

Financial Services
Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence

4

Johnson, Henry C. “Hank” Jr.

D

202-225-1605

Armed Services
Judiciary

5

Lewis, John

D

202-225-3801

Ways and Means

6

Price, Tom

R

202-225-4501

Budget
Education and the Workforce
Ways and Means

7

Woodall, Robert

R

202-225-4272

Budget
Oversight and Government Reform
Rules

8

Scott, Austin

R

202-225-6531

Agriculture
Armed Services

9

Collins, Doug

R

202-225-9893

Foreign Affairs
Judiciary
Oversight and Government Reform

10

Broun, Paul C.

R

202-225-4101

Homeland Security
Natural Resources
Science, Space, and Technology

11

Gingrey, Phil

R

202-225-2931

Energy and Commerce
House Administration

12

Barrow, John

D

202-225-2823

Energy and Commerce

13

Scott, David

D

202-225-2939

Agriculture
Financial Services

14

Graves, Tom

R

202-225-5211

Appropriations

Guam

District

Name

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

At Large

Bordallo, Madeleine

D

202-225-1188

Armed Services
Natural Resources

Hawaii

District

Name

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Hanabusa, Colleen

D

202-225-2726

Armed Services
Natural Resources

2

Gabbard, Tulsi

D

202-225-4906

Foreign Affairs
Homeland Security

Idaho

District

Name

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Labrador, Raul R.

R

202-225-6611

Judiciary
Natural Resources

2

Simpson, Mike

R

202-225-5531

Appropriations

Illinois

District

Name

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Rush, Bobby L.

D

202-225-4372

Energy and Commerce

2

Kelly, Robin

D

202-225-0773

Oversight and Government Reform
Science, Space, and Technology

3

Lipinski, Daniel

D

202-225-5701

Science, Space, and Technology
Transportation and Infrastructure

4

Gutierrez, Luis

D

202-225-8203

Judiciary
Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence

5

Quigley, Mike

D

202-225-4061

Appropriations

6

Roskam, Peter J.

R

202-225-4561

Ways and Means

7

Davis, Danny K.

D

202-225-5006

Oversight and Government Reform
Ways and Means

8

Duckworth, Tammy

D

202-225-3711

Armed Services
Oversight and Government Reform

9

Schakowsky, Jan

D

202-225-2111

Energy and Commerce
Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence

10

Schneider, Brad

D

202-225-4835

Foreign Affairs
Small Business

11

Foster, Bill

D

202-225-3515

Financial Services

12

Enyart, William

D

202-225-5661

Agriculture
Armed Services

13

Davis, Rodney

R

202-225-2371

Agriculture
Transportation and Infrastructure

14

Hultgren, Randy

R

202-225-2976

Financial Services
Science, Space, and Technology

15

Shimkus, John

R

202-225-5271

Energy and Commerce

16

Kinzinger, Adam

R

202-225-3635

Energy and Commerce
Foreign Affairs

17

Bustos, Cheri

D

202-225-5905

Agriculture
Transportation and Infrastructure

18

Schock, Aaron

R

202-225-6201

House Administration
Ways and Means

Indiana

District

Name

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Visclosky, Peter

D

202-225-2461

Appropriations

2

Walorski, Jackie

R

202-225-3915

Armed Services
Budget
Veterans’ Affairs

3

Stutzman, Marlin

R

202-225-4436

Financial Services

4

Rokita, Todd

R

202-225-5037

Budget
Education and the Workforce
House Administration

5

Brooks, Susan W.

R

202-225-2276

Education and the Workforce
Ethics
Homeland Security

6

Messer, Luke

R

202-225-3021

Budget
Education and the Workforce
Foreign Affairs

7

Carson, André

D

202-225-4011

Armed Services
Transportation and Infrastructure

8

Bucshon, Larry

R

202-225-4636

Education and the Workforce
Science, Space, and Technology
Transportation and Infrastructure

9

Young, Todd

R

202-225-5315

Ways and Means

Iowa

District

Name

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Braley, Bruce L.

D

202-225-2911

Energy and Commerce

2

Loebsack, David

D

202-225-6576

Armed Services
Education and the Workforce

3

Latham, Tom

R

202-225-5476

Appropriations

4

King, Steve

R

202-225-4426

Agriculture
Judiciary
Small Business

Kansas

District

Name

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Huelskamp, Tim

R

202-225-2715

Small Business
Veterans’ Affairs

2

Jenkins, Lynn

R

202-225-6601

Ways and Means

3

Yoder, Kevin

R

202-225-2865

Appropriations

4

Pompeo, Mike

R

202-225-6216

Energy and Commerce
Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence

Kentucky

District

Name

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Whitfield, Ed

R

202-225-3115

Energy and Commerce

2

Guthrie, S. Brett

R

202-225-3501

Education and the Workforce
Energy and Commerce

3

Yarmuth, John A.

D

202-225-5401

Budget
Education and the Workforce

4

Massie, Thomas

R

202-225-3465

Oversight and Government Reform
Science, Space, and Technology
Transportation and Infrastructure

5

Rogers, Harold

R

202-225-4601

Appropriations, Chairman

6

Barr, Andy

R

202-225-4706

Financial Services

Louisiana

District

Name

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Scalise, Steve

R

202-225-3015

Energy and Commerce

2

Richmond, Cedric

D

202-225-6636

Homeland Security
Judiciary

3

Boustany Jr., Charles W.

R

202-225-2031

Ways and Means

4

Fleming, John

R

202-225-2777

Armed Services
Natural Resources

5

Alexander, Rodney

R

202-225-8490

Appropriations

6

Cassidy, William

R

202-225-3901

Energy and Commerce

Maine

District

Name

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Pingree, Chellie

D

202-225-6116

Appropriations

2

Michaud, Michael

D

202-225-6306

Transportation and Infrastructure
Veterans’ Affairs

Maryland

District

Name

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Harris, Andy

R

202-225-5311

Appropriations

2

Ruppersberger, Dutch

D

202-225-3061

Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence

3

Sarbanes, John P.

D

202-225-4016

Energy and Commerce

4

Edwards, Donna F.

D

202-225-8699

Science, Space, and Technology
Transportation and Infrastructure

5

Hoyer, Steny H.

D

202-225-4131

Democratic Whip

6

Delaney, John

D

202-225-2721

Financial Services

7

Cummings, Elijah

D

202-225-4741

Oversight and Government Reform
Transportation and Infrastructure

8

Van Hollen, Chris

D

202-225-5341

Budget

Massachusetts

District

Name

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Neal, Richard E.

D

202-225-5601

Ways and Means

2

McGovern, James

D

202-225-6101

Agriculture
Rules

3

Tsongas, Niki

D

202-225-3411

Armed Services
Natural Resources

4

Kennedy III, Joseph P.

D

202-225-5931

Foreign Affairs
Science, Space, and Technology

5

Markey, Ed

D

202-225-2836

Energy and Commerce
Natural Resources

6

Tierney, John

D

202-225-8020

Education and the Workforce
Oversight and Government Reform

7

Capuano, Michael E.

D

202-225-5111

Ethics
Financial Services
Transportation and Infrastructure

8

Lynch, Stephen F.

D

202-225-8273

Financial Services
Oversight and Government Reform

9

Keating, William

D

202-225-3111

Foreign Affairs
Homeland Security

Michigan

District

Name

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Benishek, Dan

R

202-225-4735

Agriculture
Natural Resources
Veterans’ Affairs

2

Huizenga, Bill

R

202-225-4401

Financial Services

3

Amash, Justin

R

202-225-3831

Oversight and Government Reform

4

Camp, Dave

R

202-225-3561

Ways and Means, Chairman

5

Kildee, Daniel

D

202-225-3611

Financial Services

6

Upton, Fred

R

202-225-3761

Energy and Commerce, Chairman

7

Walberg, Tim

R

202-225-6276

Education and the Workforce
Oversight and Government Reform

8

Rogers (MI), Mike

R

202-225-4872

Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, Chairman
Energy and Commerce

9

Levin, Sander

D

202-225-4961

Ways and Means

10

Miller, Candice

R

202-225-2106

House Administration, Chairman
Homeland Security
Transportation and Infrastructure

11

Bentivolio, Kerry

R

202-225-8171

Oversight and Government Reform
Small Business

12

Dingell, John

D

202-225-4071

Energy and Commerce

13

Conyers Jr., John

D

202-225-5126

Judiciary

14

Peters, Gary

D

202-225-5802

Financial Services

Minnesota

District

Name

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Walz, Timothy J.

D

202-225-2472

Agriculture
Transportation and Infrastructure
Veterans’ Affairs

2

Kline, John

R

202-225-2271

Education and the Workforce, Chairman
Armed Services

3

Paulsen, Erik

R

202-225-2871

Ways and Means

4

McCollum, Betty

D

202-225-6631

Appropriations

5

Ellison, Keith

D

202-225-4755

Financial Services

6

Bachmann, Michele

R

202-225-2331

Financial Services
Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence

7

Peterson, Collin C.

D

202-225-2165

Agriculture

8

Nolan, Rick

D

202-225-6211

Agriculture
Transportation and Infrastructure

Mississippi

District

Name

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Nunnelee, Alan

R

202-225-4306

Appropriations
Budget

2

Thompson, Bennie G.

D

202-225-5876

Homeland Security

3

Harper, Gregg

R

202-225-5031

Energy and Commerce
House Administration

4

Palazzo, Steven

R

202-225-5772

Armed Services
Homeland Security
Science, Space, and Technology

Missouri

District

Name

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Clay Jr., William “Lacy”

D

202-225-2406

Financial Services
Oversight and Government Reform

2

Wagner, Ann

R

202-225-1621

Financial Services

3

Luetkemeyer, Blaine

R

202-225-2956

Financial Services
Small Business

4

Hartzler, Vicky

R

202-225-2876

Agriculture
Armed Services
Budget

5

Cleaver, Emanuel

D

202-225-4535

Financial Services

6

Graves, Sam

R

202-225-7041

Small Business, Chairman
Transportation and Infrastructure

7

Long, Billy

R

202-225-6536

Energy and Commerce

8

Smith, Jason

R

202-225-4404

Montana

District

Name

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

At Large

Daines, Steve

R

202-225-3211

Homeland Security
Natural Resources
Transportation and Infrastructure

Nebraska

District

Name

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Fortenberry, Jeff

R

202-225-4806

Appropriations

2

Terry, Lee

R

202-225-4155

Energy and Commerce

3

Smith, Adrian

R

202-225-6435

Ways and Means

Nevada

District

Name

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Titus, Dina

D

202-225-5965

Transportation and Infrastructure
Veterans’ Affairs

2

Amodei, Mark

R

202-225-6155

Judiciary
Natural Resources
Veterans’ Affairs

3

Heck, Joe

R

202-225-3252

Armed Services
Education and the Workforce
Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence

4

Horsford, Steven

D

202-225-9894

Homeland Security
Natural Resources
Oversight and Government Reform

New Hampshire

District

Name

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Shea-Porter, Carol

D

202-225-5456

Armed Services
Natural Resources

2

Kuster, Ann

D

202-225-5206

Agriculture
Small Business
Veterans’ Affairs

New Jersey

District

Name

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Andrews, Robert E.

D

202-225-6501

Armed Services
Education and the Workforce

2

LoBiondo, Frank

R

202-225-6572

Armed Services
Transportation and Infrastructure
Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence

3

Runyan, Jon

R

202-225-4765

Armed Services
Natural Resources
Veterans’ Affairs

4

Smith, Chris

R

202-225-3765

, Co-Chair
Foreign Affairs

5

Garrett, Scott

R

202-225-4465

Budget
Financial Services

6

Pallone Jr., Frank

D

202-225-4671

Energy and Commerce
Natural Resources

7

Lance, Leonard

R

202-225-5361

Energy and Commerce

8

Sires, Albio

D

202-225-7919

Foreign Affairs
Transportation and Infrastructure

9

Pascrell Jr., Bill

D

202-225-5751

Budget
Ways and Means

10

Payne Jr., Donald

D

202-225-3436

Homeland Security
Small Business

11

Frelinghuysen, Rodney

R

202-225-5034

Appropriations

12

Holt, Rush

D

202-225-5801

Education and the Workforce
Natural Resources

New Mexico

District

Name

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Lujan Grisham, Michelle

D

202-225-6316

Agriculture
Budget
Oversight and Government Reform

2

Pearce, Steve

R

202-225-2365

Financial Services

3

Lujan, Ben R.

D

202-225-6190

Energy and Commerce

New York

District

Name

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Bishop, Timothy

D

202-225-3826

Education and the Workforce
Transportation and Infrastructure

2

King, Pete

R

202-225-7896

Financial Services
Homeland Security
Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence

3

Israel, Steve

D

202-225-3335

4

McCarthy, Carolyn

D

202-225-5516

Education and the Workforce
Financial Services

5

Meeks, Gregory W.

D

202-225-3461

Financial Services
Foreign Affairs

6

Meng, Grace

D

202-225-2601

Foreign Affairs
Small Business

7

Velázquez, Nydia M.

D

202-225-2361

Financial Services
Small Business

8

Jeffries, Hakeem

D

202-225-5936

Budget
Judiciary

9

Clarke, Yvette D.

D

202-225-6231

Ethics
Homeland Security
Small Business

10

Nadler, Jerrold

D

202-225-5635

Judiciary
Transportation and Infrastructure

11

Grimm, Michael

R

202-225-3371

Financial Services

12

Maloney, Carolyn

D

202-225-7944

Financial Services
Oversight and Government Reform

13

Rangel, Charles B.

D

202-225-4365

Ways and Means

14

Crowley, Joseph

D

202-225-3965

Ways and Means

15

Serrano, José E.

D

202-225-4361

Appropriations

16

Engel, Eliot

D

202-225-2464

Energy and Commerce
Foreign Affairs

17

Lowey, Nita

D

202-225-6506

Appropriations

18

Maloney, Sean Patrick

D

202-225-5441

Agriculture
Transportation and Infrastructure

19

Gibson, Chris

R

202-225-5614

Agriculture
Armed Services

20

Tonko, Paul D.

D

202-225-5076

Energy and Commerce

21

Owens, Bill

D

202-225-4611

Appropriations

22

Hanna, Richard

R

202-225-3665

Small Business
Transportation and Infrastructure

23

Reed, Tom

R

202-225-3161

Ways and Means

24

Maffei, Daniel

D

202-225-3701

Armed Services
Science, Space, and Technology

25

Slaughter, Louise

D

202-225-3615

Rules

26

Higgins, Brian

D

202-225-3306

Foreign Affairs
Homeland Security

27

Collins, Chris

R

202-225-5265

Agriculture
Small Business

North Carolina

District

Name

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Butterfield, G.K.

D

202-225-3101

Energy and Commerce

2

Ellmers, Renee

R

202-225-4531

Energy and Commerce

3

Jones, Walter B.

R

202-225-3415

Armed Services

4

Price, David

D

202-225-1784

Appropriations

5

Foxx, Virginia

R

202-225-2071

Education and the Workforce
Rules

6

Coble, Howard

R

202-225-3065

Judiciary
Transportation and Infrastructure

7

McIntyre, Mike

D

202-225-2731

Agriculture
Armed Services

8

Hudson, Richard

R

202-225-3715

Agriculture
Education and the Workforce
Homeland Security

9

Pittenger, Robert

R

202-225-1976

Financial Services

10

McHenry, Patrick T.

R

202-225-2576

Financial Services
Oversight and Government Reform

11

Meadows, Mark

R

202-225-6401

Foreign Affairs
Oversight and Government Reform
Transportation and Infrastructure

12

Watt, Mel

D

202-225-1510

Financial Services
Judiciary

13

Holding, George

R

202-225-3032

Foreign Affairs
Judiciary

North Dakota

District

Name

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

At Large

Cramer, Kevin

R

202-225-2611

Natural Resources
Science, Space, and Technology

Northern Mariana Islands

District

Name

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

At Large

Sablan, Gregorio

D

202-225-2646

Education and the Workforce
Natural Resources

Ohio

District

Name

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Chabot, Steve

R

202-225-2216

Foreign Affairs
Judiciary
Small Business

2

Wenstrup, Brad

R

202-225-3164

Armed Services
Veterans’ Affairs

3

Beatty, Joyce

D

202-225-4324

Financial Services

4

Jordan, Jim

R

202-225-2676

Judiciary
Oversight and Government Reform

5

Latta, Robert E.

R

202-225-6405

Energy and Commerce

6

Johnson, Bill

R

202-225-5705

Energy and Commerce

7

Gibbs, Bob

R

202-225-6265

Agriculture
Transportation and Infrastructure

8

Boehner, John A.

R

202-225-6205

The Speaker

9

Kaptur, Marcy

D

202-225-4146

Appropriations

10

Turner, Michael

R

202-225-6465

Armed Services
Oversight and Government Reform

11

Fudge, Marcia L.

D

202-225-7032

Agriculture
Education and the Workforce

12

Tiberi, Pat

R

202-225-5355

Ways and Means

13

Ryan, Tim

D

202-225-5261

Appropriations
Budget

14

Joyce, David

R

202-225-5731

Appropriations

15

Stivers, Steve

R

202-225-2015

Financial Services

16

Renacci, Jim

R

202-225-3876

Ways and Means

Oklahoma

District

Name

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Bridenstine, Jim

R

202-225-2211

Armed Services
Science, Space, and Technology

2

Mullin, Markwayne

R

202-225-2701

Natural Resources
Transportation and Infrastructure

3

Lucas, Frank

R

202-225-5565

Agriculture, Chairman
Financial Services
Science, Space, and Technology

4

Cole, Tom

R

202-225-6165

Appropriations
Budget
Rules

5

Lankford, James

R

202-225-2132

Budget
Oversight and Government Reform

Oregon

District

Name

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Bonamici, Suzanne

D

202-225-0855

Education and the Workforce
Science, Space, and Technology

2

Walden, Greg

R

202-225-6730

Energy and Commerce

3

Blumenauer, Earl

D

202-225-4811

Budget
Ways and Means

4

DeFazio, Peter

D

202-225-6416

Natural Resources
Transportation and Infrastructure

5

Schrader, Kurt

D

202-225-5711

Agriculture
Budget
Small Business

Pennsylvania

District

Name

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Brady, Robert

D

202-225-4731

Armed Services
House Administration

2

Fattah, Chaka

D

202-225-4001

Appropriations

3

Kelly, Mike

R

202-225-5406

Ways and Means

4

Perry, Scott

R

202-225-5836

Foreign Affairs
Homeland Security
Transportation and Infrastructure

5

Thompson, Glenn W.

R

202-225-5121

Agriculture
Education and the Workforce
Natural Resources

6

Gerlach, Jim

R

202-225-4315

Ways and Means

7

Meehan, Pat

R

202-225-2011

Ethics
Homeland Security
Oversight and Government Reform
Transportation and Infrastructure

8

Fitzpatrick, Michael G.

R

202-225-4276

Financial Services

9

Shuster, Bill

R

202-225-2431

Transportation and Infrastructure, Chairman
Armed Services

10

Marino, Tom

R

202-225-3731

Foreign Affairs
Homeland Security
Judiciary

11

Barletta, Lou

R

202-225-6511

Education and the Workforce
Homeland Security
Transportation and Infrastructure

12

Rothfus, Keith

R

202-225-2065

Financial Services

13

Schwartz, Allyson Y.

D

202-225-6111

Budget
Ways and Means

14

Doyle, Mike

D

202-225-2135

Energy and Commerce

15

Dent, Charles W.

R

202-225-6411

Appropriations
Ethics

16

Pitts, Joseph R.

R

202-225-2411

Energy and Commerce

17

Cartwright, Matthew

D

202-225-5546

Natural Resources
Oversight and Government Reform

18

Murphy, Tim

R

202-225-2301

Energy and Commerce

Puerto Rico

District

Name

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

At Large

Pierluisi, Pedro

D

202-225-2615

Ethics
Judiciary
Natural Resources

Rhode Island

District

Name

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Cicilline, David

D

202-225-4911

Budget
Foreign Affairs

2

Langevin, Jim

D

202-225-2735

Armed Services
Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence

South Carolina

District

Name

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Sanford, Mark

R

202-225-3176

2

Wilson, Joe

R

202-225-2452

Armed Services
Education and the Workforce
Foreign Affairs

3

Duncan, Jeff

R

202-225-5301

Foreign Affairs
Homeland Security
Natural Resources

4

Gowdy, Trey

R

202-225-6030

Education and the Workforce
Ethics
Judiciary
Oversight and Government Reform

5

Mulvaney, Mick

R

202-225-5501

Financial Services
Small Business

6

Clyburn, James E.

D

202-225-3315

Assistant Democratic Leader

7

Rice, Tom

R

202-225-9895

Budget
Small Business
Transportation and Infrastructure

South Dakota

District

Name

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

At Large

Noem, Kristi

R

202-225-2801

Agriculture
Armed Services

Tennessee

District

Name

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Roe, Phil

R

202-225-6356

Education and the Workforce
Veterans’ Affairs

2

Duncan Jr., John J.

R

202-225-5435

Oversight and Government Reform
Transportation and Infrastructure

3

Fleischmann, Chuck

R

202-225-3271

Appropriations

4

DesJarlais, Scott

R

202-225-6831

Agriculture
Education and the Workforce
Oversight and Government Reform

5

Cooper, Jim

D

202-225-4311

Armed Services
Oversight and Government Reform

6

Black, Diane

R

202-225-4231

Budget
Ways and Means

7

Blackburn, Marsha

R

202-225-2811

Budget
Energy and Commerce

8

Fincher, Stephen

R

202-225-4714

Agriculture
Financial Services

9

Cohen, Steve

D

202-225-3265

Judiciary
Transportation and Infrastructure

Texas

District

Name

Party

   Phone

    Committee Assignment

1

Gohmert, Louie

R

202-225-3035

Judiciary
Natural Resources

2

Poe, Ted

R

202-225-6565

Foreign Affairs
Judiciary

3

Johnson, Sam

R

202-225-4201

Ways and Means

4

Hall, Ralph M.

R

202-225-6673

Energy and Commerce
Science, Space, and Technology

5

Hensarling, Jeb

R

202-225-3484

Financial Services, Chairman

6

Barton, Joe

R

202-225-2002

Energy and Commerce

7

Culberson, John

R

202-225-2571

Appropriations

8

Brady, Kevin

R

202-225-4901

Ways and Means

9

Green, Al

D

202-225-7508

Financial Services

10

McCaul, Michael T.

R

202-225-2401

Homeland Security, Chairman
Foreign Affairs
Science, Space, and Technology

11

Conaway, K. Michael

R

202-225-3605

Ethics, Chairman
Agriculture
Armed Services
Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence

12

Granger, Kay

R

202-225-5071

Appropriations

13

Thornberry, Mac

R

202-225-3706

Armed Services
Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence

14

Weber, Randy

R

202-225-2831

Foreign Affairs
Science, Space, and Technology

15

Hinojosa, Rubén

D

202-225-2531

Education and the Workforce
Financial Services

16

O’Rourke, Beto

D

202-225-4831

Homeland Security
Veterans’ Affairs

17

Flores, Bill

R

202-225-6105

Budget
Natural Resources
Veterans’ Affairs

18

Jackson Lee, Sheila

D

202-225-3816

Homeland Security
Judiciary

19

Neugebauer, Randy

R

202-225-4005

Agriculture
Financial Services
Science, Space, and Technology

20

Castro, Joaquin

D

202-225-3236

Armed Services
Foreign Affairs

21

Smith, Lamar

R

202-225-4236

Science, Space, and Technology, Chairman
Homeland Security
Judiciary

22

Olson, Pete

R

202-225-5951

Energy and Commerce

23

Gallego, Pete

D

202-225-4511

Agriculture
Armed Services

24

Marchant, Kenny

R

202-225-6605

Education and the Workforce
Ways and Means

25

Williams, Roger

R

202-225-9896

Budget
Transportation and Infrastructure

26

Burgess, Michael

R

202-225-7772

Energy and Commerce
Rules

27

Farenthold, Blake

R

202-225-7742

Judiciary
Oversight and Government Reform
Transportation and Infrastructure

28

Cuellar, Henry

D

202-225-1640

Appropriations

29

Green, Gene

D

202-225-1688

Energy and Commerce

30

Johnson, Eddie Bernice

D

202-225-8885

Science, Space, and Technology
Transportation and Infrastructure

31

Carter, John

R

202-225-3864

Appropriations

32

Sessions, Pete

R

202-225-2231

Rules, Chairman

33

Veasey, Marc

D

202-225-9897

Armed Services
Science, Space, and Technology

34

Vela, Filemon

D

202-225-9901

Agriculture
Homeland Security

35

Doggett, Lloyd

D

202-225-4865

Ways and Means

36

Stockman, Steve

R

202-225-1555

Foreign Affairs
Science, Space, and Technology

Utah

District

Name

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Bishop, Rob

R

202-225-0453

Armed Services
Natural Resources
Rules

2

Stewart, Chris

R

202-225-9730

Homeland Security
Natural Resources
Science, Space, and Technology

3

Chaffetz, Jason

R

202-225-7751

Homeland Security
Judiciary
Oversight and Government Reform

4

Matheson, Jim

D

202-225-3011

Energy and Commerce

Vermont

District

Name

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

At Large

Welch, Peter

D

202-225-4115

Energy and Commerce
Oversight and Government Reform

Virgin Islands

District

Name

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

At Large

Christensen, Donna M.,

D

202-225-1790

Energy and Commerce

Virginia

District

Name

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Wittman, Robert J.

R

202-225-4261

Armed Services
Natural Resources

2

Rigell, Scott

R

202-225-4215

Armed Services
Budget

3

Scott, Robert C.

D

202-225-8351

Education and the Workforce
Judiciary

4

Forbes, J. Randy

R

202-225-6365

Armed Services
Judiciary

5

Hurt, Robert

R

202-225-4711

Financial Services

6

Goodlatte, Bob

R

202-225-5431

Judiciary, Chairman
Agriculture

7

Cantor, Eric

R

202-225-2815

Majority Leader

8

Moran, James

D

202-225-4376

Appropriations

9

Griffith, Morgan

R

202-225-3861

Energy and Commerce

10

Wolf, Frank

R

202-225-5136

Appropriations

11

Connolly, Gerald E. “Gerry”

D

202-225-1492

Foreign Affairs
Oversight and Government Reform

Washington

District

Name

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

DelBene, Suzan

D

202-225-6311

Agriculture
Judiciary

2

Larsen, Rick

D

202-225-2605

Armed Services
Transportation and Infrastructure

3

Herrera Beutler, Jaime

R

202-225-3536

Appropriations
Small Business

4

Hastings, Doc

R

202-225-5816

Natural Resources, Chairman
Oversight and Government Reform

5

McMorris Rodgers, Cathy

R

202-225-2006

Energy and Commerce

6

Kilmer, Derek

D

202-225-5916

Armed Services
Science, Space, and Technology

7

McDermott, Jim

D

202-225-3106

Budget
Ways and Means

8

Reichert, David G.

R

202-225-7761

Ways and Means

9

Smith, Adam

D

202-225-8901

Armed Services

10

Heck, Denny

D

202-225-9740

Financial Services

West Virginia

District

Name

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

McKinley, David

R

202-225-4172

Energy and Commerce

2

Capito, Shelley Moore

R

202-225-2711

Financial Services
Transportation and Infrastructure

3

Rahall, Nick

D

202-225-3452

Transportation and Infrastructure

Wisconsin

District

Name

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

1

Ryan, Paul

R

202-225-3031

Budget, Chairman
Ways and Means

2

Pocan, Mark

D

202-225-2906

Budget
Oversight and Government Reform

3

Kind, Ron

D

202-225-5506

Ways and Means

4

Moore, Gwen

D

202-225-4572

Budget
Financial Services

5

Sensenbrenner, F. James

R

202-225-5101

Judiciary
Science, Space, and Technology

6

Petri, Thomas

R

202-225-2476

Education and the Workforce
Transportation and Infrastructure

7

Duffy, Sean P.

R

202-225-3365

Budget
Financial Services

8

Ribble, Reid

R

202-225-5665

Agriculture
Budget
Transportation and Infrastructure

Wyoming

District

Name

Party

Phone

Committee Assignment

At Large

Lummis, Cynthia M.

R

202-225-2311

Natural Resources
Oversight and Government Reform
Science, Space, and Technology

Fax: 202-224-5301

Jerry Moran  –  @JerryMoran (R – KS) (202) 224-6521 Fax: 202-228-6966 Web Site Olathe: (913) 393-0711

Rights of American Citizens: The policy which ought to be pursued by the federal government in relation to commerce

DoCThe Rights of an American Citizen: With a Commentary on State Rights, and on the Constitution and Policy of the United States by Benjamin Lynde Oliver published 1832

Continued from RIGHTS OF AMERICAN CITIZENS: The policy which ought to be pursued by the federal government in relation to manufactures

PART III; OF THE POLICY WHICH OUGHT TO BE PURSUED BY THE GENERAL GOVERNMENT IN RELATION TO AGRICULTURE, MANUFACTURES, AND COMMERCE.

CHAPTER III; Commerce.

On this exhaustless subject, a few passing remarks only will be hazarded. Not because, as some suppose, the principles of science in relation.to it, can be comprehended by merchants only; but because the minute details, which alone require prolonged discussion, are of little consequence to general readers, and yet can only be obtained by a practical acquaintance with trade.

It is somewhat singular, that merchants of long experience and supposed sagacity, who have acquired and amassed great fortunes in youth, sometimes lose their property and fail, at a time of life, when, if ever, the judgment ought to be in its highest perfection. On the other hand, it is not less singular, that some persons of small acquirements and very moderate capacity, sometimes acquire great wealth by commerce in a very few years. The bad result in the former case, and the good one in the latter, however, are sufficient to show, that, in commerce, sagacity and experience, are not absolutely necessary to obtain success, and, what is worse, are not sufficient to insure it. It follows, that no infallible principles are derivable from mercantile experience, which will guaranty invariable prosperity even to the merchant’s private affairs; and much less, to those of the public.

The reason is, that the knowledge acquired by experience, consists only of those facts and details, which are necessary to carry on the particular branch of trade in which the individual happens to be engaged, but which have no general application to the interests of the public. For, the interest of the merchant, and that of the public are two different things, having no necessary connexion, any further than that the wealth of a a merchant is a constituent part of the whole wealth of the community, of which he is a member.

In order to have distinct ideas on this subject, as well as to form a correct opinion how far commerce is advantageous to a country, it will very shortly be considered under the heads of domestic trade, importation, exportation, and the carrying trade. These will be considered as entirely distinct, though it may very well happen, that two or more of these operations, may be performed in any single extensive commercial transaction.

1. Domestic trade is obviously of the highest importance to a community. Without it society could not well continue at all, but men would exist merely as solitary savages, in a state of perfect independence. For, it is almost impossible, that intercourse should be kept up among mankind, without those mutual dealings and contracts, in all of which some principle of exchange and barter, is necessarily more or less involved. If a hatter should barter a hat to a shoemaker for a pair of shoes; if a carpenter should contract, with a farmer to build him a shed, for a certain number of bushels of wheat; or, if two farmers should agree to exchange work, it might be considered as constituting an operation of internal trade, as much as a direct purchase for money.

It is of the utmost consequence to society, that this home trade should be as free from restraint as possible; because it is more convenient, that the citizens should supply each other with the respective products of their labor, than that each individual should undertake to be his own carpenter, batter, blacksmith, &c, and thus vainly attempt to supply his wants by his own personal labor in those various trades. For, in this way, each individual would be able to do but little work, and that would be done badly. But the division and distribution of labor, enable each individual to have an abundance of every kind of work, and well executed. The policy of taxing sales by auction, or of licensing auctioneers, retailers, inn-holders, pedlars, &c., does not come within the scope of this work. On the subject of home trade, therefore, it seems superfluous to enlarge, because, with the above suggested exceptions, it is left in perfect freedom.

2. Foreign trade; exportation, &c. With regard to foreign trade, its value to the country depends entirely upon the comparative value in use, between the articles exported and those imported in return.

In commerce, exportation as well as importation may be either advantageous or disadvantageous to the country.; and consequently in a single exchange of exports for imports, either a double loss, or a double gain may arise to it.

The most disadvantageous trade to a state that can be carried on, is where the exported articles are the necessaries of life, and the imports are not only incapable of supporting life, but tend to destroy it. It is not to be expected, that any country will long continue to increase in population, where a trade of this kind is carried on. If, therefore there should be exported from a country beef, pork, fish and corn, though, at the highest price in money, and that money should immediately be re-invested in brandy, wine, rum, gin, and other things equally incapable of supporting life, and equally injurious to health which should be brought back for home consumption, though at the cheapest rates, such commerce would be the most destructive to the prosperity of a state, that can be conceived. It is true, the merchant might be accumulating immense sums from such a business, and might suppose, from his own prosperity, that he was doing the public a great service; but, it is equally true, that he could not, if he were disposed, do a greater mischief to the public, than to buy up the necessaries of life and ship them abroad, and bring back such articles as have been named and expose them for sale throughout the country. In such a case as this, the merchant, if he grew rich, would fatten on the ruin of his country. For, by buying up the necessaries of life, and paying for them, directly or indirectly, in such commodities, supposing them to be merely useless, though they are in fact pernicious, he renders the production of the necessary articles exported, wholly vain, the labor bestowed on them being thrown away. The delusion which the producer would labor under would be this, that he should get a high price for his produce; but he forgets that it is paid in an article which is worthless in use. If it should be replied, that be can sell it to his neighbor and get a high price for it; still it is obvious the injury to the state is the same, though the loss falls on the thoughtless, and not on the designing and guarded. Any rich and powerful state, that finds its population at a stand, or increasing in too slow a ratio on account of emigration, would do well to look to this. For, in no case whatever, is the prosperity of the merchants, a test of the advantage of trade to the country. But this test will always be found in the consequent prosperity of the producer of exported articles, whether manufacturer or husbandman, &c., and the prosperity of the consumers of the imported ones.

That the prosperity of a merchant, is no test of the advantage of the trade he carries on, to the state, may easily be shown; because, however profitable a trade might be to the state, all the merchants concerned in it may lose money by it and be compelled to abandon it. On the other hand, however ruinous any trade may be to the state, it is very possible that the merchants may grow rich by it. The direct foreign trade, therefore, ought never to be encouraged for the sake of the interest of the merchants, but, for the sake of the public interest, which are two very distinct things. Where they are compatible—where the trade is for the advantage of the public, it should be encouraged; but, where incompatible, and where the trade is pernicious to the public interest, the interests of the state ought not to be sacrificed to favor those of a comparatively small number of persons. The hackneyed expression, laissez nous faire, in this case, would be as absurd as unbecoming; the merchant here is a mere carrier, and not a party in interest, any further than his commissions or profits are concerned. The trade is carried on for the advantage of the community, and not for the sake of giving him an opportunity to make money.

2. Where the merchant exports the surplus manufactures of a country, beyond what is necessary for home consumption, and brings back the necessaries or conveniences of life, he carries on a trade which is highly advantageous to the country. In the first place, he increases the demand for the home manufactures; consequently he enables more persons to support themselves by manufacturing; in this way, he increases population. In the next place, by bringing back the necessaries of life, he increases the supply in the slate, which operates in the same manner as a blessing would do, which should increase the annual produce of the soil; this also would tend to increase the population; for, wherever the necessaries of life are cheap, population will increase. If it should be said, this would discourage agriculture; the answer is, it would not prevent any man from cultivating his farm. On the contrary, as he found produce cheap, he would endeavor to raise more, so as to compensate in quantity for the lowness of the price; its tendency, therefore, would rather be to increase the production of agriculture. But, if the products of agriculture, on account of their abundance, became very low in price, many persons, who otherwise would have engaged in it, will betake themselves to other occupations, as the various trades, or manufactures, or commerce,, which, in consequence of the cheapness of necessary articles, would afford them opportunities of getting a living with very moderate labor. Thus, there would be a permanent increase of population, distributed equally in all the various classes of society, which always soon finds its level in this respect.

For, the high price of manufactures is attributable in part, at least, to the high price of labor; the high price of labor is owing to the high price of the necessaries of life. The high price of the necessaries of life, must necessarily follow extensive purchases of them for exportation and returns made in luxuries, superfluities or foreign goods generally, not being necessaries. If then the necessaries of life are retained, labor will become cheap in comparison with every thing but those necessaries. Consequently manufactures will grow cheaper, and there will be less necessity for protection against the competition of foreigners. Manufacturing companies therefore ought not to despair, even if the tariff should be taken off, as a measure might be suggested, which it is thought would be a palliative far its removal, if not a substitute for its continuance.

But, though such a trade would be highly advantageous to the state, it obviously might or might not, be ruinous to the merchants engaged in it, according to the state of the markets at home and abroad, and their prudence or imprudence in the management of their business. This is another proof, that the prosperity of the merchant, is not the slightest test of the public benefit of the trade, in which he is concerned.

Whence does the merchant derive his wealth in this case? Certainly it consists in the profits, which he receives from the consumer of the goods which he imports. The consumer endeavors to obtain the foreign goods as cheap as possible, the merchant endeavors to obtain for them as high a price as possible. In this particular the interests of the two are incompatible, and either may grow rich at the expense of the other. But, it is the interest of the state, that the surplus over consumption should be exported, and a return made of other articles, of equal utility, and not easily obtained otherwise. In this respect the interests of the merchants, and those of the producers of exports, and the consumers of imports, and consequently, of the whole state, strongly coincide. Commerce is here of the highest importance. It creates a new value. It performs in effect the operation of production. There is no measure of encouragement or protection, that commerce of this kind can reasonably require, that should not immediately be bestowed; and, here there is no danger, that laissez nous fuire, would ever be heard.

USChamberBut, a duty on the necessaries of life, imported from abroad, is a very great absurdity. For, what can be the object of it? Political partisans perhaps will say, that it is laid for the purpose of protecting national industry from the competition of foreigners. This is done by laying so heavy a duty on foreign production, that it will be wholly excluded from the market, and thus domestic produce will have the whole market secured to itself. But, the consequence will be, that the prices of the necessaries of life, will rise higher than before. The farmers will sell their produce at almost any price they please, unless the competition among them keeps it down. It will gradually, however, come to a level with other kinds of business; because so many will betake themselves to the cultivation of the soil, that they will fully supply the market, if the territory of the state, which can be come at, is sufficient for that purpose.

The farming business, in this case, will .have a great advantage secured to them in this monopoly; but, it will be at the expense of the manufacturers and the rest of society. This is clear; because, if foreign produce were admitted, the domestic produce would conform to it in price. But, if the foreign is excluded, then domestic produce rises to whatever the producers shall agree among themselves to demand. For, the necessaries of life must be had, if possible, from some source or other. And this necessity, if the producers can agree in demanding an exorbitant price, will put the rest of society at their mercy. For, the tendency of such a law is to reduce the rest of society under the control of the producers, in the same manner as the whole nation of the Egyptians were reduced by the policy of Joseph.

It is inexpedient, therefore, to impose any duty on foreign produce of the necessaries of life, because it so far checks an increase of population. Further, if home production is sufficiently abundant, then such an import would be superfluous; because, then the price of foreign produce would not pay for importing. On the other hand, if the price of foreign produce would pay for importing, then the domestic must be proportionally scarce. But true policy requires that the necessaries of life, should be as cheap and abundant as possible.

There is a strange error prevailing in the minds of some politicians, who assume that whatever increases consumption, increases production also, in the same proportion. For, they reason thus, whatever consumes an article in the market, raises the price of it. The increase of price, enables those who produce the article, to get more money for their labor than they can in other productions; they therefore bestow more labor in producing it, and others also .are induced to neglect other business, and to bestow their labor in the same way, and with the same expectations. But, notwithstanding this plausible theory, if the consumption is not for some valuable purpose, the labor of producing what is consumed, is entirely thrown away. The production consequently is of no use whatever. Suppose a state, capable of producing the necessaries of life, for 10,000,000 of people, were unhappily bound by a necessity to export 9-10ths of its whole produce, and receive a return in imports of jewelry, brandy, rum, wine, and other articles not capable of sustaining life, is it not clear that such commerce, though it might enrich the inhabitants with an abundance of expensive and perhaps ornamental articles, would yet so completely check its prosperity, that it could never reach more than one tenth of the population, which it could sustain. Such commerce would therefore be highly ruinous to the state, though the merchants, if they carried it on would grow rich by the profits they made by it. But though such state would thus check its growth and throw away the advantages which nature had given it, by selling its birthright in effect like the ignorant Indians for a string of beads, or a cask of brandy, the foreign producer or manufacturer of such worthless articles, would fatten on the folly or wretchedness of the inhabitants of such state. For,’the population which might be sustained here, would be supported abroad by supplies drawn from this country. And the seven lean kine would thus devour the seven well favored; and the most barren and unfruitful country, incapable of itself of sustaining a single inhabitant, might by such commerce, become as populous as China, and the country with which it traded, though as fertile as the garden of Eden, would never contain more inhabitants, than enough to till it for the sake of those foreign consumers.

To what extent these remarks are applicable to the commerce of any of the United States, let each reader judge for himself.

In 1822, there was exported from the United States, in fish, $930,000; in flour, $5,300,000; in rice, $1,000,000;’in pork, 1,400,000; in corn, meal, rye, he, $1,100,000; in butter and cheese, 220,000. Total $10,550,000.

In the same year there was imported into the United States, exclusive of what was re-exported, in wine, $1,700,000; in spirits, $2,300,000; in teas, $ 1,200,000; in cigars, $ 174,000. Total $5,374,000.

As these last articles were the balances remaining after re-exportation, they must he considered as designed for consumption. Now, to the United States, it is of no sort of consequence whether these imports were purchased with the proceeds of those exports or not, because, the result is the same. For, so far as the exportation of these necessaries of life, and the importation of these pernicious or useless articles, the produce of the United States is wasted; the productive labor has been employed for the mere benefit of those foreigners whose . wines, &c, have been purchased, and who have been supported abroad, instead of an equal number of people who would be supported in the United States, if the necessaries of life had not been exported. This species of commerce, it should be remembered, is to be considered as perpetual; consequently the United States are always to be taxed in this extraordinary manner for the support of foreigners, and the fertility of the soil is to be changed for sterility, and sterility upon which annual labor is thus thrown away.

3. There is another species of commerce, which consists of what is called the carrying trade. Though this is usually combined with the other operations of exporting and importing, yet, as it is so far subject to the remarks made in relation to them; and, as it may be carried on in a manner entirely independent of those operations, so far as the merchant’s own country is concerned, it will here be considered simply as the carrying trade.

Where a merchant in this country employs his capital in carrying merchandize backwards and forwards between two foreign countries, the public here derive the following advantages from it. 1. Though he makes his money abroad, yet he spends it here; as he increases in wealth, therefore, he adds proportionally to the wealth of the state where he resides, without any drawback whatever on the part of the state. 2. All those citizens, whom he employs in the management of his affairs at home or abroad, he supports out of the profits of his trade. He, therefore, so far increases the population of the society, by furnishing these citizens with the means of earning a living, without the least expense whatever to the state. This is evident, because if he saw fit, he might remove to some other country and employ others in their room; in which case, those citizens who are now employed. by him, would be obliged to derive it from some other source either at home or abroad. If at home, they would be obliged to come into competition with others. If abroad, the population would be diminished by their number. Merchants so circumstanced, it is obvious, deserve every countenance and encouragement to reside in the state. Because, their prosperity or adversity, to a certain degree, affects that of the state; and they bear part of its burdens, but add nothing to them.

CONCLUSION: On the Future Prospects of the United States.

Perhaps no country can, with more propriety, be said to have its destiny in its own power, than the United States. Having a local situation, remote from all nations, which are sufficiently powerful to endanger its independence; a population already sufficiently numerous for a great empire, yet rapidly increasing and spreading over its extensive territory; a climate, temperate and generally salubrious; a soil, fertile, and abundant in variety and production; a people, bold, enterprising and intent upon their interests; a frame of government, in which the choice of rulers depends on popular suffrages, and mild and indulgent; containing within itself a power to reform and amend, without any necessity of resorting to primary assemblies; which imposes few or no restraints, merely arbitrary, or which are grounded on policy alone; and consequently secures to its citizens the enjoyment of liberty to its utmost rational extent; under such circumstances, it would seem impossible that the United States should ever fall from their elevated rank among nations, into a state of weakness and contempt, unless they should occasion their own. decline, by the imprudence or rashness of their national policy, or should bring upon themselves ruin and destruction, as a judgment from heaven.

The advantage which a free elective government has over others, presupposes, in the majority of the electors, sufficient discernment to compare the characters and capacities of candidates for office, and requires, that in making a selection, they should be actuated by proper motives. If the former is wanting, there can be no certainty that they will elect the best candidate; if the people vote under unsuitable influence, it is almost certain that a bad choice will be the result.

Among the motives which frequently govern the popular choice, perhaps there is none worse than the influence of party. For, it is characteristic of this influence, as sometimes exhibited both in elections by the people, and appointments by rulers, that it does not seek either for a man of talents, and integrity, great acquirements, or industry, or well acquainted with the duties of the office. Such qualifications without more, though amply sufficient for the purposes of the public, are no qualifications at all in a party view. For, here the only necessary qualifications are, that the character of the candidate should not be so bad, nor his incapacity so flagrant, as to disgrace his party; but he must be the right kind of man to serve the turn of the party, and in case of appointments through party influence, he must either have rendered party services, or be recommended by some one who has, Sec.

The country of a partisan, to which he considers himself as owing the duty of patriotism, will be found, on examination, to mean nothing more than the party to which he belongs. It is this false god, that, in political affairs, governs his conscience, and constitutes his standard of right and wrong. The mental subjection of the followers of party, is therefore most miserable. For, until they know what their leaders think, they must not venture to form an opinion for themselves, for fear they may afterwards be obliged to recant it. Their ruling principle therefore is, neither truth, justice, or the interests of the country, but it is, To Be True To The Party.

And by what motives does party induce the citizens thus to follow her through right and wrong indiscriminately? The leaders are actuated by the hopes of personal distinction, or other advantage; the partisans are governed chiefly by the gregarious principle, though the personal influence of those leaders, exerted in numberless ways, must not be omitted. But, it may be asked, may not the citizens unite together for the purpose of attaining some object of general utility, without being obnoxious to the charge of forming a party or faction? Undoubtedly they may do so; for their acts are then for the good of the country; and not for the advancement of party purposes; and therefore in such a case there is no necessity for party names or distinctions.

In many instances, parties have originated with ambitious individuals, who, conscious of a want of desert for the distinctions at which they aim, have resorted to cabals and intrigues to induce persons who were not well informed, to join themselves to them as his followers. One of the earliest factions on record, is that of Abimelech. See Judges, Ch. ix. The direful effects of factions and parties in Rome, Carthage, Jerusalem, &tc. in ancient times, and in Italy, France, England and Ireland, &c. from the middle ages down to the present day, warrant the opinion, that as they are almost inseparable from governments under which any portion of liberty is enjoyed, and are violent in proportion to that liberty, so they are one of the greatest evils that can infest society.

As soon as any combination of persons become a permanent body, begin to act separately from “the rest of society, assume a peculiar designation, are organized with officers, and under the guidance of leaders, they are factious, and are dangerous to the public tranquility according to the proportion which their numbers bear to all the rest of society. It is true, so long as there is nothing more to excite them, than the usual contests at elections, they may do no great harm; but, experience shows, that whenever anything uncommon occurs, to rouse their passions, there is no act of violence or excess, to which they may not be incited. And whenever the country shall be so completely divided into factions, that every one shall find himself compelled to side with one or another, in order to escape incivility, the moral sentiments of society will, be proportionally degraded and debased. Should its violence ever rise to a great height, the only safety for the peaceful citizens will be to stand by the constitution and laws, and take care that they are not violated, under a pretense of reforming abuses.

What palliative can be found for this evil? Take away from the president the sole power of removing, appointing or even nominating public officers, any further than it is expressly bestowed in the constitution. Disqualify members of congress for all other public offices, during the term for which they are elected, not merely during their term of office. Suffer no removals from one public office to another.

These regulations would diminish in some measure the prize of ambition, would take away some of the subject matter of promises, intrigue and corruption, and consequently would cool the patriotism of the leaders of factions, and perhaps hush that eloquence, which so much attracts the less informed part of the people.

So long as the different parties are completely intermingled with each other throughout the country, there will be but little danger of public commotions from factions, however unfavorably the peace and tranquility of private intercourse may be affected by angry discord; but, as soon as the parties come to be defined by the limits of states and territories, there will be immediate danger of public disturbances. The minority, out of power, in any such case, will always be apt to consider the public measures of the majority, in power, as tyrannical and oppressive, and contrary to law and the constitution; and when things have come to this pass, there never will be wanting demagogues to excite sedition, insurrection, and civil war, and dupes and disorderly persons, to follow such leaders in their career of violence and wickedness, from a hope of obtaining that distinction, in times of public disturbance, which they are conscious will otherwise be unattainable.

It is the duty, therefore, of every conscientious citizen, and the interest of every peaceable one, to discountenance, as much as possible, all party distinctions and divisions generally; but especially, to prevent their becoming sectional. It is for this reason, the majority in congress, when not urged by some paramount obligation of justice, should be extremely cautious of exercising any power, of the constitutionality of which there exists a doubt, from mere considerations of general expediency, when the minority consists of one or more states, the citizens of which may consider themselves injured by it. For, if such a case should ever occur, there is hardly an argument, that was formerly urged against the oppression of the British government before the revolution, which state patriots will not revive, and apply, whether right or wrong, to excite the people of their states to resist the general government. The people also would do well, to thrust back into private life those office seekers, who personally, or by the agency of political partisans, under patriotic pretenses, obtrude themselves upon the citizens, and seek their suffrages at elections, but who care not what evils they bring upon their country, so that they obtain their own ends. But though, agreeably to the theory of the admirable constitution under which we live, every fault in legislation, and every deficiency in itself, may be easily corrected or amended, without disturbing the public tranquility; yet, in practice a degree of intelligence is required in the people, to perceive the necessity of such, amendments and corrections, and agree in the choice of legislators who will make them, that history and observation teach us, is too much to expect of a numerous population. This defect, therefore, where it exists, will probably be found incurable; because the want of intelligence and discernment is not obviated by the mere exercise of the will. For, it is not infrequent to find that individuals, of contracted minds and small information, take an envious satisfaction in opposing the measures of persons, whom they know to possess more discernment.

It is on persons of such a character, as well as the ignorant and imbecile generally, that designing men operate, by flattering their prejudices, tantalizing their envy, and exciting their suspicions; and by such arts become popular with them. If the time should ever come, therefore, when the majority of the people shall be of this class, and be under such guidance, how will it be possible, that any fault in its legislation, or defect in its frame of government should be remedied, when the very defect itself, will furnish food for the ambition of the leaders of the majority and the means of rewarding their followers? For, that no such defect will ever be corrected or amended, where those, who have the power, consider it inconsistent with their interests to do it, requires no proof. Let us turn our eyes abroad. The British empire has been for many years laboring under the pressure of a number of great political evils and embarrassments. Yet, instead of removing the true causes of those evils, they have been endeavoring to procure a reform of certain minor abuses and corruptions, which, if removed, will improve the condition of the country in a small degree only. Yet this inconsiderable reform has been most strenuously urged and opposed, and great eloquence and oratory has been exhibited on both sides.

But measures, the policy of which is obvious to every intelligent person, and which would remedy many of the evils under which that mighty empire languishes, are hardly mentioned. To pay the national debt of Great Britain; abolish tythes; enable the industrious to earn a living by moderate labor; to improve the pauper system, by employing the poor in such a manner as to support themselves; to reform the cruel criminal code, and at the same lime render it unnecessary; to convert the vicious population of the larger cities into honest and industrious citizens, by furnishing them with sufficient employment; measures which would naturally assist each other and contribute to the same end, one would suppose to be such that in comparison with either of them, a reform in parliament, would amount to nothing at all. Yet, if the parliament were willing that these measures should be adopted, it is believed these objects might all be effected within a moderate number of years. Tythes might be gradually and completely abolished in one generation, by passing a law to discontinue them at the death of the present clerk of each parish respectively. The evils arising from an unequal distribution of property, would be gradually diminished by enabling all children to inherit equally. The application of a just principle, but which perhaps is not thought of, would immediately put the British National Debt in a state of liquidation; to the great relief of the nation’s taxes, yet without defrauding the public creditor of one farthing of his due, &c. But, if measures like these, should be repugnant to the feelings, or considered inconsistent with the interests of men in power, it would be vain to expect they wotdd be adopted, though they would cause the British nation to be one of the happiest as well as most powerful on earth, and would render the reign of William IV, the most glorious since the conquest.

The case in this country is analogous. The people will never be able to get back power or influence from the hands of their rulers, if once intrusted with it. For, abuses, corruptions, &c. always tend to continue themselves until they destroy their subject, and then all perish together. For instance, suppose the people should think the president’s official patronage conferred on him by the laws of the United States, too great and of a pernicious tendency, how can they take it away? By law? The president may not consent, and the direct or indirect influence of that very patronage, may very possibly prevent the passage of the law by a majority of two thirds. This demonstrates the propriety of rendering all members of congress, incapable of any other office during the term for which they are elected, which would render them entirely free from the slightest bias. But will the people ever be able to induce the members of congress, to consent to make this alteration? On the contrary, though the expediency of it is evident to every person’ of ordinary information, the people will1 sooner be persuaded by their representatives, that such alteration would be bad policy. For similar reasons, h is hardly to be expected, that any president will ever consent that his power of removal from certain offices, should be taken away from him; of, that the people should ever be able to choose legislators, the majority of whom will be sufficient to effect that measure. For, office seekers, who, indirectly or directly, manage so as to control the voice of the people of their party, would lose all motive to elect or to remove any president, if the office of president should lose the power of removing officers; because1 a new president would have no offices to distribute among his’ supporters.

If, therefore, the people would wish to be liberated from indirect thraldom of this kind, by which they so often find themselves hampered and shackled, without knowing how it happens, or in what it consists, they must throw off the livery of party, and not suffer office seekers or office holders, to influence their conduct; and, if ever an opportunity presents to reclaim those powers, take care for the future to grant no more such.

An unfortunate circumstance, attending all popular governments where the people choose their own rulers, is, that the choice is frequently grounded on no other merit or qualification, than an acceptable manner of haranguing the populace. It is very singular that volubility, fluency, and loquacity, which, with men of observation, are considered a proof of any thing but wisdom or ability, should be the only criterion of those qualifications, which the people have. In consequence of this wrong estimate, these accomplishments are made too much the objects of ambition, and any further knowledge and acquirements than may be used in flights of oratory, are considered superfluous. Those persons, however, who expend so much time in learning to speak well, must evidently do it at the expense of more valuable acquisitions. And what would be the consequence if all members of the general legislature, were great orators? 1. The sessions of congress would be very much prolonged, because every member must have an opportunity of making one or more, vainglorious speeches. 2. Business would consequently be delayed; yet finally be hurried through, or else left half done and postponed to the next session. 3. Emulation, degrading strife, and angry and indecent contention would unnecessarily consume a great part of the time, which should be devoted to the public service. 4. Though many long speeches would be made, about a subject, yet there would be very little discussion, because declamation is altogether unfavorable to rational investigation. No one, therefore,would ever be convinced by, or be the wiser for tiresome harangues; on the contrary, as the speeches were longer, the impressions would grow fainter and less distinct. For, it is found that the excitement occasioned by the most impassioned eloquence, lasts but a short time, and, when it has once begun to subside into languor and apathy, cannot be renewed by a mere fountain of lofty words, even though inexhaustible and though animated by the most spirited action, and uttered in a loud voice and with energetic gestures. The characteristics of eloquence itself seem to be very much changed from what they formerly were. It no longer consists of just arguments forcibly expressed, but of pointless descant, dealt out without any other limits than such as nature has set to the continuance of all bodily exertion; for, though the time of congress ought not to be valued at less than $200 or $300 per hour, yet those, who wish to be considered as eminent speakers, seldom declaim less than three or four hours; though probably there never was a speech more than half an hour long, that would not be improved by reducing it within that compass. What an ungrateful advantage then does a declaimer at irregular assemblies of the people, take of the patient admiration of his followers, when he keeps them in a state of petrifaction for a whole evening, with polished periods and rhetorical flourishes, pronounced with dignified self-complacency!

There is another mistake, that is sometimes made by the people. They are afraid to elect to office a man of superior abilities for fear he should not be honest; and prefer to him some person of correct character as far as the public knows, but of very moderate capacity, on the supposition that he will be more likely to be honest than the other, and, at any rate, will not be able to do much mischief. Experience shows, that such suppositions are frequently very incorrect. The ruling passion of men of great abilities, is ambition; that of men of small abilities who are conscious of it, is either envy or avarice. The sense of character of the former, will therefore preserve them honest, unless this quality should be in the way of their advancement. But honesty is necessarily at continual war with avarice. There is, therefore, great odds, that men of moderate abilities will sooner be dishonest, than those of great talents. For one Lord Bacon, there have been thousands of persons of moderate abilities, who have been corrupted, or, would have been, if they had been thought of sufficient consequence. It is true, that men of small abilities can do no great harm directly, and can do no great good, at all, unless, by accident; but, they may by their vote, prevent a great deal of good, and thus indirectly do much mischief. But, such persons are always a dead weight upon the public councils. If ignorant, every thing must be explained to them; if conceited, slow of apprehension, uncomplying and obstinate; nothing must be done without their seeing, knowing, attempting to understand, and expressing an insipid opinion upon it, whether they understand it or not. When envious of superior abilities in another, as is frequently the case, their sole aim is to create difficulties, in order to make themselves of consequence. In order to obtain a character for discernment, and because conscious of their ignorance and imbecility, they are full of suspicion and mistrust; and, from want of knowledge, often halt most miserably, between the extremes of credulity and incredulity; sometimes believing falsehood and ridiculous absurdities, and frequently disbelieving probability, truth, and even demonstration itself, because they cannot understand it. Their whole ability may be reduced to one single measure. They find out what others are desirous to effect, and oppose it for that reason. When they practice deceit, they use direct falsehood, and, in this way, they often succeed with persons, whom they never could have overreached by subtilty. Such is the man of moderate abilities and noiseless character, that sometimes creeps into office instead of a man of talents and experience; and, if he has an occasion, will sacrifice not his country only, but even his party, to gain his own ends.

It was remarked, that the United States seem to have their destiny in their own hands. If they would become a great nation, they must continue united. If they should separate, their importance would immediately vanish; and their jealousies and dissensions with each other, if they did not break out into border wars and predatory incursions, would render each of them comparatively weak, and little regarded with other nations; and would cause them to be less willing to assist each, and at the same time less able to stand alone. The necessity and advantage of union, will however never be able to preserve it, if injustice is practiced by the United States upon one or more of the individual states, or, what will, in the result, amount to the same thing, if the influential men in any state, with whatever views, can persuade the people of their state, that such is the case; and, it is apprehended also, that if the leading men of any state should feel satisfied, that, by seceding from the Union, they will be able to gain distinction and power among their own citizens, in consequence of supposed advantages resulting to their state from such measures, a patriotic pretext will never be wanting for that purpose.

The states are advancing so rapidly in population, wealth and power, that there is great danger that the common bond of union, the constitution of the United States, though sufficient, when the country was less flourishing, and there was more danger from foreign powers, than at present, will be found too weak to hold the states together much longer. The wise citizens, therefore, and those who have a regard for the true interests of the country, at the same time that they support the constitution, and endeavor to give it additional strength by amendments, will be very cautious of giving cause of disaffection, by attempting to increase its power by doubtful constructions. But, there is good reason to believe, that there is a faction already formed within the United States, whose aim is to separate themselves from the Union; and, if they can bring the people of the state to which they belong, to believe that the constitution is violated} and that they have a right to resist, their object so far will be obtained. To strain the powers of the constitution by a doubtful construction, is to do half of their work for them. It is true, if such is their object, they will unquestionably persist in it, though every possible cause of jealousy should be removed, and every thing that they ask, should be conceded; because any pretext, however groundless In reality, if sufficient to persuade the people of their state, will answer their purpose. Still, if, by avoiding every act that can furnish occasion for complaint, the wiser citizens among them can be induced to see, that there is no just cause for it whatever, it is hoped, they will have sufficient influence over the rest, to counterbalance that of unprincipled and designing demagogues. In this way the evil day will be postponed, and such persons will be left without any excuse or extenuation for their conduct.

Before taking leave of his readers, the author will submit one further consideration, which, though it would come with far better grace from a teacher of religion, he hopes will not be considered improper in one who is a firm believer in Christianity; since it is addressed to those only, who make the same profession.

It is remarked in substance by Bishop Atterbury, that one of the reasons of God’s interposing so remarkably in the sudden depression or advancing of kingdoms and states, is because this conduces to the manifestation of his political justice, towards public bodies and communities of men; and which is very different from that, by which he punishes the sins or rewards the virtues of private persons. The justice of his dealing with particular men may be manifested here or hereafter, as he thinks fit; for their duration is eternal, and should their successful crimes or unmerited afflictions be winked at in this world, it suffices if such irregularities are set right in another. But, as to the societies, and combinations of men, the justice of his administration towards them, must be manifested either in this world, or not at all.

If, therefore, borrowing the hint from this excellent divine, we contemplate the fall of the ancient empires, which once flourished in the highest state of splendor and magnificence, but are now almost forgotten, in connexion with the reasons assigned by the inspired writers for their destruction, and keep in mind the immutability of the divine nature, it will furnish no irrational or unphilosophical ground, to conjecture the fate of any nation, which shall transgress in a similar manner.

It is the opinion of many very worthy and conscientious persons, that, from the first settlement of this country, the Indians have had great cause of complaint against the white inhabitants; and, if there does not appear in the history of early times any particular instances of ill treatment, fraud, injustice, or imposition upon them, it is ascribed to the partiality of the historian, or his ignorance of the real causes of Indian aggressions, which, on account of the omission of their causes, sometimes appear to be wholly unprovoked and most barbarous. But, in later times, we cannot so easily shut our eyes to the light. For there is an internal evidence in certain transactions, which he must be a very inattentive observer, who cannot perceive. The United States have purchased or extinguished the Indian title to 200 millions of acres of land, for less than four millions of dollars. The lowest price which the United States demand for these lands, at the rate of $ 1,25 per acre, is 250 millions of dollars. The Indian nations are in a state of pupillage, or under guardianship to the United States, a relation which is regarded with so much suspicion by a Court of Equity, that it sets aside all purchases made by a guardian of his ward, because of the temptation the former is under, to take an unfair advantage of the latter. These treaties, however, though so advantageous to the United States, the Indians complain have not always been so scrupulously observed, on the part of the white inhabitants, as they ought to have been. Previous to the independence of the United States, the intrusions upon the Indian lands by new settlers of the most lawless character, was a frequent subject of complaint by the Indians from the year 1768 at least, when the six nations remonstrated to the commissioners of Pennsylvania, that, it would be time enough to settle their lands, when they had purchased them, &c: and, afterwards, when the Delawares and other tribes thus pathetically, but fruitlessly remonstrated with the Governor of Pennsylvania, ‘ We want to live in friendship with you: you have always told us you have laws to govern your people by; but we do not see that you have: we find your people very fond of our rich land; we do not know how soon they may come over the river Ohio and drive us from our villages; nor do we see you, brothers, take any care to stop them.’ What the conduct of the settlers was, is clearly shown by the report of the commissioners for trade and plantations, in which they remark, ‘ if the settlers are suffered to continue in the lawless state of anarchy and confusion, they will commit such abuses as cannot fail of involving us in quarrels and disputes with the Indians,’ he. There is reason to suspect, that in all the Indian wars which have taken place, from the confederacy under King Philip to the war with Black Hawk, which is just concluded, the first provocation consisted in some act of injustice, fraud, imposition or violence, perpetrated by some of the white inhabitants. But the truth will never be come at, by hearing one side only.

About the year 1771, the white settlers infringed the Indian boundary and killed several Indians, and encroached on the lands on the opposite side of the Ohio. The intruders could never be effectually removed. Governor Gage twice sent parties of soldiers to remove them from Redstone Creek, but in vain. That Indian wars should arise in this way, is not to be wondered at. But, when they do arise, it would be much more humane to send commissioners to the Indians, to demand their grievances, make them reparation and punish all who molested them, rather than to march troops against them to destroy them, right or wrong. It would also be more magnanimous in a nation containing twelve millions of people, against a few thousands, the remnant left by the evils brought on them by the whites, ardent spirits, and the small pox; to say nothing of the slaughter of them, which is frequently made a subject of boast, without much reason.

Some of the Indian tribes make grievous complaints, that their treaties are violated. Are not the bargains made with them advantageous enough, without resorting to such measures as these? They have appealed to the government of the United States,—they have appealed to the people of the United States, for redress. Shall it be in vain? Let no presumptuous confidence in the consciousness of superior power, and their comparative weakness, dictate the answer. The Amalekites, who were the first of nations, were sentenced to be utterly put out under heaven, because they attacked the Israelites when on their march, faint and weary, and slew those who were in the rear, and’ feared not God.’ Exo. ch. xvii. v. 14. Deut. ch. xxv. v. 18. If any one should answer, that the Israelites were under the immediate protection of the Deity; the reply is, that Babylon, the wonder of the world for its magnificence, was brought to utter ruin for the pride and arrogance of the people and rulers, and the oppressions which they practiced on other nations.

What was the cause of the judgments denounced against Damascus? It was, among other things, because they had threshed Gilead with threshing instruments; which is supposed by interpreters to mean, that they had greatly oppressed the Hebrews on the east of Jordan.

What was the cause of the judgment against Tyre? Was it not for cruel treatment of the Hebrews, and ‘ because they remembered not the brotherly covenant?’

What was the cause of the judgment against Edom? Was it not pitiless cruelty and unceasing revenge and hatred of the Jews?

When Saul slaughtered the Gibeonites in violation of the treaty, made with them in the time of Joshua, he committed an act highly offensive to the Supreme Being, which was followed many years afterwards, in the time of David, by the infliction of a famine for three successive years, until atonement was made. When David sinned in numbering the Israelites, there was a pestilence sent on the people from Dan to Beersheba, and seventy thousand of them died. These instances are deserving attention, because in them, it appears, the people were afflicted for the wickedness of their rulers, though they had no control over them whatever. As respects the people, therefore, in these instances, the infliction must be considered as merely natural evil, though brought on by the crimes of their rulers. But, if the people choose their own rulers, and thus sanction their measures with their approbation or tacit acquiescence, if those measures are unjust, wicked and oppressive, with how much less reason can they hope to escape, under the pretense that those measures are the acts of the government, and not the acts of the people. For, that those, who adopt the unjust act of another and screen him from punishment, are made answerable for his sins, is apparent from the narration of the Levite’s wrong mentioned in Judges, ch. xx., where it appears, that when the Israelites demanded, that the perpetrators should be delivered up, but the Benjaminites would not suffer them to he punished and took up arms to oppose the Israelites, the whole tribe was exterminated with the exception of six hundred only.

In these general visitations it must be an unwarrantable presumption to hope to escape, from a mere supposition that innocence will be a protection; since this would be to expect a miracle to take place. It is therefore made the temporal interest of every one, to endeavor to prevent injustice from being committed by his rulers; since he may suffer the infliction of natural evil, if he is entirely free from participating in the unjust act, for which the nation is punished.

If the United States therefore should commit acts of injustice and oppression upon the Indians, upon what ground can they hope to escape a visitation for it? If the rulers oppress them, or suffer any of their agents or any of the people under their government, to do so, it is national sin, and, if visited by some national calamity, what individual has a right to expect that a miracle shall be wrought to save him from it? He may be innocent or he may not be so; but when the pestilence comes, or the earthquake, or tempests, or floods, or famine, or foreign war, or civil commotions, sent as judgments upon the whole people for national transgressions, he must bear his lot, whatever it may be. For, there is no pretense, that those upon whom the tower of Siloam fell, were worse than others.* *

It is a sufficient refutation of the fatal error of those persons, who suppose they may commit wickedness with impunity in this world, by using proper precautions, and so avoiding those direct, probable, and natural consequences, which they foolishly believe are the only punishments to be expected for their flagitiousness, that those immediate consequences are rather to be considered as warnings to desist from offending, than the punishments of offenses. If these consequences are avoided, and the warning is not taken, and the offender hardens himself in the confidence of impunity, the result will infallibly show, in the language of revelation, that ‘ God is not mocked;’ and the offender will find in the result, that though for a time, he goes on in a course of unrivaled prosperity, and, from all appearances, might seem to be favored above others, yet in reality he is but adding wrath to wrath, until his iniquity is filled to the full; when he will find destruction come suddenly upon him from a quarter, whence it was least expected. Such was the fall of Hainan, and the Amalekites with him.* * *

Is it not then worth while for the people of the United States to examine, whether they have always acted justly, mercifully and humanely towards the Indian tribes; or, whether they have not directly or indirectly, by their agents, or, by not restraining lawless intruders, or, by not observing the Indian treaties, grievously oppressed them? Are the honest and worthy citizens of the United States, willing to run the risk of suffering some infliction of the divine displeasure. rather than that such violators of the public peace, should be controlled or punished?

It is true, that, while the Indians remain not wholly driven out or exterminated, it is possible, that no severe requital may be made; because, a season for a change of conduct, may perhaps be mercifully allowed. But, after the Indians are dispersed or annihilated, and there is no longer any opportunity remaining to do them justice or to make reparation for their wrongs, it is then, in the false security of worldly prosperity, that there will be most reason to dread a day of evil visitation.* *

Are there not sources enough, from whence such an evil may come, notwithstanding the present apparent prosperity of the United States, without the necessity of going out of he ordinary course of nature? This nation introduced ardent spirits and perhaps the small pox too, among the Indians. Have they not suffered by intemperance and pestilence, themselves? Is it not possible, that the same disposition, that can countenance a violation of Indian treaties, may lead to a violation of the constitution, and that the consequences of the latter may be a most awful infliction and retaliation for the former?

What then does prudence, as well as, religion, justice and humanity dictate with regard to the treatment of the Indians. Fence off the Indian territories with a wall of iron against lawless intruders. Send missionaries among them, men, who, as experience shows, may be depended on, in whatever they undertake, to instruct, and with power to protect them. If hostilities arise, instead of marching an armed force to massacre them, send commissioners with power to hear their complaints, redress their wrongs and relieve their necessities. This is all that is asked, and it will cost the United States nothing in comparison with the profit, derived from the purchases already made of the Indian territories. But, until this is done, it does not look well to speak of Russia and Poland; nor, it is believed, will a national fast be of any avail to avert any infliction, if it should be a punishment for injustice, so long as the injustice is continued.

Let not then the appeal of the Indians to the citizens of the United States be made in vain, lest they be compelled to appeal to a tribunal, from which it is believed they will not be sent away unredressed; but whatever shape it may appear in, whether war, pestilence, famine, civil commotions, or insurrection, the injured sooner or later will be avenged, and the justice of heaven vindicated.

FINIS.

See the other parts of this series:
RIGHTS OF AMERICAN CITIZENS: General Rights; Division One
RIGHTS OF AMERICAN CITIZENS: General Rights; Division Two
RIGHTS OF AMERICAN CITIZENS: General Rights; The Social Compact
RIGHTS OF AMERICAN CITIZENS: The Powers delegated to the General Government in the Federal Constitution
RIGHTS OF AMERICAN CITIZENS: Powers delegated to the State Governments
RIGHTS OF AMERICAN CITIZENS: The Independence of the States
RIGHTS OF AMERICAN CITIZENS: The rights reserved to the people of the United States
RIGHTS OF AMERICAN CITIZENS: Of the right of suffrage and of elections
RIGHTS OF AMERICAN CITIZENS: The Liberty of Speech and of the Press
RIGHTS OF AMERICAN CITIZENS: The Power of Courts to punish for Contempts
RIGHTS OF AMERICAN CITIZENS: The Law of Libel in relation to Public Officers
RIGHTS OF AMERICAN CITIZENS: The Rights of Juries
RIGHTS OF AMERICAN CITIZENS: The Rights of Witnesses
RIGHTS OF AMERICAN CITIZENS: Of the mode of obtaining redress for any infringement of civil or political rights, committed either by the officers of the General Government, or of any of the State Governments.
RIGHTS OF AMERICAN CITIZENS: The policy which ought to be pursued by the federal government in relation to agriculture
RIGHTS OF AMERICAN CITIZENS: The policy which ought to be pursued by the federal government in relation to manufactures
RIGHTS OF AMERICAN CITIZENS: The policy which ought to be pursued by the federal government in relation to commerce

Rights of American Citizens: The policy which ought to be pursued by the federal government in relation to manufactures

Manufacturing1The Rights of an American Citizen: With a Commentary on State Rights, and on the Constitution and Policy of the United States by Benjamin Lynde Oliver published 1832

Continued from Rights of American Citizens: The policy which ought to be pursued by the federal government in relation to agriculture

PART III; OF THE POLICY WHICH OUGHT TO BE PURSUED BY THE GENERAL GOVERNMENT IN RELATION TO AGRICULTURE, MANUFACTURES, AND COMMERCE.

CHAPTER II; Manufactures.

In the progress of society, manufactures naturally follow agriculture. For, when society begins to advance from its rudest beginning, it is found that other things are desirable beside mere food, lodging and clothing, and, at the same time, that improvements are making in relation to these three subjects, it is discovered, that, as soon as provision is made for the necessities of nature, those of the imagination must also be provided for. A boundless field is therefore opened at once for the utmost exertion of human industry and ingenuity.

By the census of the United States, it appears that more than one fifth of the whole population is engaged in agriculture. As there is a considerable exportation of agricultural products capable of supporting human life, it is very probable that every person employed in agriculture, is able to support a considerable number of persons beside himself; it is not easy, however, nor is it necessary here to ascertain precisely how many.

If therefore a colony, consisting merely of persons whose usual occupation was to cultivate the soil, should settle in a new country, though they might have a great abundance of the immediate means of subsistence; yet they would be in want of numberless necessaries and conveniences. A blacksmith, house-Wright, mason, &c, would, therefore be an invaluable accession to their number, and, on account of the great demand for their services, such persons would have it in their power to extort almost any wages, which they thought fit to demand. It is obvious, therefore, that the business of any such mechanic, would be more profitable than that of a husbandman; because the same labor bestowed in such business, would earn many times as much agricultural produce, as it would raise, if employed in agriculture. Common sense would therefore immediately prompt the farmers to bind their sons, apprentices to such trades, until the colony contained a sufficient number of mechanics to supply all its wants.

Manufactures derive their origin from the mechanic arts. They first provide for the demands of necessity, then those of convenience, and terminate in luxury; and though it is not easy to draw the line where each begins and ends, all manufactures may be classed under these three heads.

Those manufactures, which are matters of necessity, are few, and may usually be obtained at a moderate expense, and in great abundance. But, as the demand for them is very great and uniform, the trades which produce them are deservedly great favorites with the people. Because, for the most part, they require but little skill, and every man having a healthy constitution, .and a moderate share of bodily strength, if he is industrious and temperate, is pretty sure of getting a good living by following one of them.

Those manufactures, which are matters of convenience, are more numerous. As society advances, they come to be regarded as absolutely necessary. They are greatly diversified, and the demand for them is constant; persons engaged in them easily obtain a good living, but usually, though they require more skill, they do not call for so much severe and unremitted labor as the first class. Those trades which supply such manufactures, are therefore more apt to be crowded; and the price of the product in consequence of competition, is frequently low, in comparison with the time bestowed in manufacturing it.

Manufactures for the supply of luxury, though they are the product of labor bestowed in particular trades, yet are almost infinite in variety. They are sometimes boundless in extravagance; frequently of very inconsiderable utility, or, all the real use may be supplied with articles of much less price; and sometimes are pernicious to the public, because hurtful to the health or estate of imprudent individuals. Great skill is sometimes required in the manufacture of them, and there is also a chance of failure. Their price in such cases, is very high, in comparison with the labor bestowed on them; because those which succeed must compensate, for the loss on those which fail. In some, their value and consequently their price depends upon novelty, having therefore but little intrinsic value, as soon as the fashion changes, they become worthies and cheap, though their real utility remains the same.

If a farmer should give two bushels of corn for a pair of shoes, he might be considered as acting under a species of moral necessity, because his health might be concerned in the purchase; if he should give a third of that value for a razor, he would consult his comfort or convenience; in either case, if the price was agreeable to the usual market valuation, he could not be blamed for imprudence. But, if he should give a hundred bushels of corn for a cashmere shawl, it would be useless extravagance, though the actual price in the market were twice what he gave for it. Or, if he gave a ton of carrots for a pair of ear-rings, or for any fashionable article, which in six months time would be out of fashion, and would not bring one half of the price which he gave, though its real value was not at all diminished, he would commit an act of expensive vanity.

If all the lands in any community were distributed among husbandmen, and cultivated by them to the highest degree, and all the necessaries and conveniences of life, beside what they raised by their own labor, were furnished them by mechanics and manufacturers, before the introduction of the inventions and discoveries of luxury, it is plain, that independently of foreign commerce, such community might attain to a great height in the number of its population, all of whom might be as comfortably situated, as the reasonable satisfaction of moderate wishes would require. For, as all the farmers would equally have occasion for the products and labor of manufacturers and mechanics, these classes would receive in exchange from the farmers, so much of their produce, as their own labor would have produced, if employed in agriculture. Because, agreeably to the general rule, the demand would regulate the supply; and the number of apprentices bound to a trade, would depend upon their prospect of earning a good living, when they should become master workmen.

But, as soon as society advanced one step further, it would be discovered, that agriculture could support within the country a greater number of persons, than could find employment within it, taking all the various occupations of agriculture and manufacturers together. For, not many more persons would engage in agriculture, than would be sufficient to supply the whole community with agricultural produce. And, as it would by no means take all the rest of the people, to supply the whole community with every species of necessary convenience, or even domestic luxury, that might be called for; it would immediately become necessary to find some means of employing the supernumeraries, so as to enable them to support themselves; since otherwise they would become a burden upon the rest of the community. And it would soon be perceived, that this could be done effectually, and perhaps without changing the nature of their usual employments, by finding another market for the products of their labor. As the home market would already be taken up, another market for the surplus of home production, must therefore be looked for, abroad. This would introduce foreign trade and navigation. For, the manufacturer by means of the merchant, and with the use of shipping, would send abroad all the surplus produce of his labor beyond what was called for to supply the market at home; and receiving his returns from abroad either in money or in some foreign article of luxury or variety, which he could not obtain at home, and exchanging it in whole or in part for the necessaries or conveniences of life, would thus be enabled to get as good a living as his neighbors. By the introduction of the various employments of commerce and navigation, the means of obtaining a good living, would also be furnished to another numerous class of people, who would be supported by and consequently would furnish a market for a large amount of agricultural produce. Thus the various classes of society would mutually assist, and at the same time, balance each other. The exigences of society however would introduce various other classes of persons, whose occupations and employments are of the highest necessity and utility, such as the makers, expounders, and ministers of the laws, the members of the various professions, teachers of youth, &c. &c., all of which, so far as political economy is concerned, must be considered in the inoffensive and strict sense of the term, as parasitical. For, these classes derive their existence merely from the use they are of to society, to prevent or remove evils, inconveniences and disadvantages, which otherwise it must necessarily suffer. This is obvious; because if the people were peaceable and just in all their dealings, there would be but little necessity for rulers, legislators, &c. &c. If they were always in health, there would be no occasion for physicians, surgeons and apothecaries. If knowledge were either intuitive, or were unnecessary, there would be no occasion for teachers of youth, &c.

As the manufactures, which are necessary to supply the home market, employ a great many persons who consume a large proportion of agricultural produce, the interests of agriculture and manufactures are intimately connected; they are reciprocally advantageous; and whatever encourages or discourages either, for the most part affects the other in a similar manner.

So long as the necessaries of life raised by the husbandman, are exchanged for home manufactures, even though they should be merely articles of luxury, if not absolutely pernicious, there will hardly be any subject for legislative interference; because, those necessaries being consumed within the territory, the country will always sustain as great a population, as its actual production will enable it to do at the time. No check will therefore be offered to the increase of its population. And even although the consideration, which the husbandman should receive from the manufacturer, should be nothing more valuable than trinkets and baubles of his manufacture, the interests of the country will not be directly concerned in it. For, the whole amount of property in the community will remain the same as before, notwithstanding such exchange; there being no difference, except that the manufacturer has supplied his occasions with agricultural produce, and the husbandman has gratified his vanity with the possession of finery of little value. The tendency of such a barter, however, is very injurious. For, as soon as it is discovered, that more of the necessaries of life can be earned by a little easy labor, bestowed in manufacturing articles of such inconsiderable value, than by a great deal of hard labor employed in tilling the ground, there will be too many apprentices bound to learn the trade of manufacturing such articles, and agriculture will be less followed. The evil may, or may not, cure itself. Agricultural produce without doubt, would rise; and when the country was once deluged with such baubles, their price would probably fall, to conform to their real value; but invention is infinite, and for aught that appears, there might be new patterns and new fashions in perpetual succession forever, to the great impoverishment of the agricultural class and consumers generally.

But, as society is at present constituted, it seems impossible for the legislative power to interpose, without infringing what the citizens consider their reserved rights. For, they would hardly consent, that they should be deprived of the privilege of consulting their inclinations in the purchase of any articles, however useless, extravagant, or even pernicious, by the operation of sumptuary laws. Such matters, therefore, must be left to the discretion of each individual, being, matters of private economy.

But, it is quite clear, that, while the manufacture of articles of real utility, should meet with every encouragement that the legislative power of the country has a right to bestowj sound policy requires that any manufactures of the nature just referred to, should receive no encouragement, for the plain reason, that they consume the means of subsistence for a class of manufacturers of greater utility. But, when all the useful and necessary occupations in society are filled with tradesmen, artists and manufacturers, no objection ought to be made to the setting up of any such manufactures, or any of the various fine or ornamental arts. Because to check or prohibit these, is to stop the advance of society in civilization and refinement; and is to require, that wealth, which is the proper reward of skill and industry, should forego those innocent and proper indulgences, which furnish the strongest motive for its accumulation. And the fine arts, though they make no pretensions to be the foundations of society nor add any thing to its strength, still must be considered as contributing greatly to its felicity, and constituting the most brilliant gems that adorn its crown. Another principal reason, however, why encouragement should not be held out to them, in the first instance, is, that, out of the number of aspirants to distinction among them, a comparatively small number meet with any considerable success; for, as in them anything short of excellence, is but little regarded; and, as excellence is always comparative, a few only can be rewarded with a prize, which, though an ample one, is always bestowed at the expense of the unsuccessful competitors, who in consequence, frequently languish in indigence and obscurity.

Manufactures, which convert the necessaries of life into an article incapable of sustaining it, and, which being of but little use at best, in fact, sometimes, become the ruin of numberless people from the temptations to excess which they offer, should be wholly abolished. Because they check population, by wasting food capable of sustaining life; destroy health; lessen industry; and introduce directly or indirectly every species of vice.

As some of the United States possess great natural advantages for the establishment and carrying on of manufactures; but others are less favorably situated for this purpose, the following questions, being subjects of general interest, naturally present themselves for consideration.

1. Is it advantageous to the interests of any manufacturing state, that foreign goods, which come into competition with its manufactures, should be either partially or wholly, excluded from its market, by protecting or prohibitory duties?

2. Is it disadvantageous to the interests of any non-manufacturing state, that foreign manufactures usually consumed within it, and of a similar kind to goods manufactured in some of the other states, should be either partially or wholly excluded from its market, by protecting or prohibitory duties?

3. Is it, on the whole, a national advantage to the United States, that duties should be laid on foreign goods, of a similar kind with goods manufactured in some of the states, for the purpose of securing either a monopoly, or equal competition for the products of the industry of the manufacturing states, against those of foreign industry?

4. Has the congress of the United States any authority under the federal constitution, either to prohibit, or to impose duties upon the importation of foreign goods, for the sole purpose of securing the whole market of the United States, to the products of the industry of the manufacturing states, and, when there is no constitutional call for the expenditure of the money to be raised by the collection of those duties?

It may be remarked, that, though a state which has manufactures largely established within it, is here called a manufacturing state, it is by no means so called because those manufacturing interests are paramount to all the other interests in such state; for, it is believed, that there is hardly a state in the Union, in which there is not some interest within it, either of agriculture or commerce, paramount to that of manufactures. But this epithet is bestowed on it here, merely to distinguish such states, from those which have not introduced manufactures among them. It would be a great error in politics, therefore, to wish to introduce any regulations into a state for the encouragement of its manufactures, without previously considering how such regulations consist with the interests of the state at large, that is, the interests of the rest of the inhabitants. Laying this foundation, it may be answered,

1. With regard to the first question; the direct consequence of a prohibition of foreign manufactures, is to raise the price of domestic ones of the same kind and quality. This price will then depend upon the proportion between the demand and the supply. If the supply is not equal to the demand, the price will rise very high, and the manufacturers will realize a great profit, but the rest of society will be put to great expense and inconvenience in furnishing themselves with goods, which they will be compelled to do at such prices, as the manufacturers think fit to demand. The tendency of high prices will be to encourage smuggling. Affairs, however, will not remain long in this state. As soon as it is discovered, that manufacturers derive great profits from their business, so many will embark in it, that the market will be abundantly supplied with goods, which will therefore fall in price; and notwithstanding the goods of foreign manufacture are excluded, and the monopoly of the home market is secured to the domestic manufacturers, their competition with each other will soon render their prices as moderate, as they are in all other kinds of business; that is, as low as they can sell them and make a reasonable profit, in proportion to the profits of othef kinds of business. It is very clear, therefore, that the manufacturers, as individuals, will derive no permanent gain from a prohibition of foreign goods, which will give them an advantage over persons engaged in other occupations; though, if such prohibition shou