Power of History2

THE POWER OF HISTORY by Horatio Seymour (1810–1886)

HoriatoSeymourTHE FUTURE OF THE HUMAN RACE, An Oration By Ex-Gov. Horatio Seymour, Delivered At Rome, New York, July 4th, 1876.

The superior man acquaints himself with many sayings of antiquity and many deeds of the past, in order to strengthen his character thereby. ~ John Milton

I Do not come before you merely to take part in a holiday affair, nor to excite a passing interest about the occasion which calls us together. While my theme is the History of the Valley of the Mohawk, in speaking of it the end I have in view is as practical as if I came to talk to you about agriculture, mechanics, commerce or any other business topic.

There is in history a power to lift a people up and make them great and prosperous. The story of a nation’s achievements excites that patriotic pride which is a great element in vigor, boldness and heroism. He who studies with care the jurisprudence of the Old Testament, will see that this feeling of reverence for forefathers and devotion to country is made the subject of positive law in the command that men should honor their fathers and their mothers. But sacred poetry is filled with appeals to these sentiments, and the narratives of the Bible abound with proofs of the great truth, that the days of those who fear them shall be long in the land which God has given them. All history, ancient and modern, proves that national greatness springs in no small degree from pride in their histories, and from the patriotism cherished by their traditions and animated by their examples. This truth shines out in the annals of Greece and Rome. It gives vitality to the power of Britain, France, Germany and other European nations. The instincts of self-preservation led the American people in this centennial year to dwell upon the deeds of their fathers and by their example to excite our people to a purer patriotism, to an unselfish devotion to the public welfare.

The power of history is not confined to civilized races. The traditions of savage tribes have excited them to acts of self sacrifice and heroism, and of bold warfare, which have extorted the admiration of the world. The Valley of the Mohawk gives striking proofs of this. The Iroquois, who lived upon the slopes of the hills which stretch from the Hudson to the shores of Lake Erie, called themselves by a name which asserted that they and their fathers were men excelling all other men. Animated by this faith which grew out of their legends, they became the masters of the vast region stretching from the coast of the Atlantic to the banks of the Mississippi, from north of the great Lakes to the land of the Cherokees.

Unaided by arts, without horses or chariots, or implements of war, save the rudest form of the spear and the arrow, they traversed the solitary forest pathways, and carried their conquests over regions, which in extent have rarely been equaled by civilized nations with all the aids of fleets, or the terrible engines of destruction which science has given to disciplined armies. History gives no other example of such great conquest over so many enemies or difficulties, as were won by the Iroquois, when we take into account their limited numbers. Does any man think that all this would have been true if they had not been stirred up to a savage but noble heroism by the traditions of their tribes?

governorhoratio-seymourThe power of history over our minds and purposes is intensified when we stand amid the scenes of great events. Men cross the ocean and encounter the fatigues, dangers of a journey to the other side of the earth, that they may walk through the streets of Jerusalem, or look out from the hill of Zion, or wander amid sacred places. These scenes bring to* their minds the story of the past in a way that thrills their nerves. Or, if we visit the fields of great battles, the movements of armies, the thunder of artillery, the charge, the repulse, the carnage of war, the ground strewed with dead or dying and slippery with blood, are all presented to our imaginations in a way they can not elsewhere be felt or seen.

If beyond the general interest of history which incites to national patriotism, and in addition to the scenes of events which stir our blood when we move among them, we know that the actors were our fathers whose blood flows in our veins, we then have acting upon us, in its most intense form, the power of the past. Patriotism, and love of the land in which we live; a pious reverence for our fathers, all unite to lift us up upon the highest plane of public and of private virtue.

The men and the women of the valley of the Mohawk meet here to-day not only to celebrate the great events of our country, but to speak more particularly about deeds their ancestors have done on these plains and hillsides, and then to ask themselves if they have been true to their country, to their fathers and themselves by preserving and making known to the dwellers in this valley and to the world at large its grand and varied history. Have they been made household words? Have they shaped the ambitions and virtues of those growing up in the fireside circle? Have they been used to animate all classes in the conduct of public and private affairs?

Just so far as the dwellers in the valley of the Mohawk have failed in these respects, they have cheated and wronged themselves. They have failed to use the most potent influence to elevate their morals, intelligence and virtue. They have not brought themselves within the scope of that promise which religion, reason and experience show, is held out to those who honor their fathers, and incite themselves to acts of patriotism and lives of public and private devotion, by keeping in their minds the conduct of the good and great who have gone before them.

Let the events in this valley during the past three centuries now pass in review before us. Its Indian wars, the missionaries’ efforts, animated by religious zeal, which sought to carry religion into its unbroken forests and wild recesses; the march of the armies of France and England, with their savage allies, which for a hundred years made this valley the scenes of warfare and bloodshed; the struggle of the revolution, which brought with it not only all the horrors ever attendant upon war, added to them the barbarities of the savage ferocity that knows no distinction of age, sex or condition, but with horrible impartiality inflicted upon all alike the tortures of the torch and tomahawk. When these clouds had rolled away through the pathways of this valley, began the march of the peaceful armies of civilization which have filled the interior of our country with population, wealth and power. The world has never elsewhere seen a procession of events more varied, more dramatic, more grand in their influences.

The grounds upon which we stand have been wet with the blood of men who perished in civilized and savage war. Its plains and forests have rung with the war cry of the Iroquois, and have echoed back the thunder of artillery. Its air has been filled with the smoke of burning homes, and lighted up by the flames of the products of industry, kindled by the torch of enemies. Let this scene impress your minds while I try to tell the story of the past. With regard to the savages who lived in this valley, I will repeat the statements which I made on a recent occasion, and the evidence which I then produced in regard to their character.

Power of History1We arc inclined to-day to think meanly of the Indian race, and to charge that the dignity and heroism imputed to them was the work of the novelist rather than the proof of authentic history. A just conception of their character is necessary to enable us to understand the causes which shaped our civilization. But for the influence exerted by the early citizens of this place upon the Iroquois, it is doubtful if the English could have held their ground against the French west of the Alleghenies.

In speaking of them the colonial historian Smith says:

These of all those innumerable tribes of savages which inhabit the northern part of America, are of more importance to us and the French, both on account of their vicinity and warlike disposition.

In the correspondence of the French colonial officials with Louis the Great, it is said:

That no people in the world, perhaps, have higher notions than these Indians of military glory. All the surrounding nations have felt the effects of their prowess, and many not only become their tributaries, but are so subjugated to their power, that without their consent they dare not commence either peace or war.

Colden, in his history, printed in London, in 1747, says:

The Five Nations think themselves by nature superior to the rest of mankind, and call themselves “Onguekonwe,” that is, men surpassing all others.

This opinion, which they take care to cultivate in their children, gives them that courage which has been so terrible to all nations of North America, and they have taken such care to impress the same opinion of their people on all their neighbors, that they on all occasions yield the most submissive obedience to them. He adds; I have been told by old men of New England, who remembered the time when the Mohawks made war on their Indians, that as soon as a single Mohawk was discovered in the country, these Indians raised a cry from hill to hill, A Mohawk! a Mohawk! upon which they all fled like sheep before wolves, without attempting to make the least resistance, whatever odds were on their side. All the nations round them have for many years entirely submitted to them, and pay a yearly tribute to them in wampum.

We have many proofs of their skill in oratory and of the clearness and logic of their addresses. Even now, when their power is gone, and their pride broken down, they have many orators among them. I have heard in my official life speeches made by them, and I have also listened to many of the distinguished men of our own lineage. While the untutored man could not arm himself with all the facts and resources at the command of the educated, yet I can say that I have heard from the chiefs of the Five Nations as clear, strong and dignified addresses as any I have listened to in legislative halls or at the bar of our judicial tribunals. Oratory is too subtle in its nature to be described, or I could give to you some of the finest expressions in Indian addresses.

They did not excel merely in arms and oratory, they were a political people. Monsieur D. La Protiere, a Frenchman and an enemy, says in his history of North America:

When we speak of the Five Nations in France, they are thought, by a common mistake, to be mere barbarians, always thirsting for blood, but their characters are very different. They are indeed the fiercest and most formidable people in North America, and at the same time are as politic and judicious as well can be conceived, and this appears from their management of all affairs which they have not only with the French and English but likewise with almost all the Indians of this vast continent.

As to their civil polity, Colden says in 1747:

Each of these nations is an absolute republic by itself, and every castle in each nation is governed in all public affairs by its own sachems or old men. The authority of these rulers is gained by and consists wholly in the opinion the rest of the nation have of their integrity and wisdom. Their great men, both sachems and captains, are generally poorer than the common people, and they affect to give away and distribute all the presents or plunder they get in their treaties or in wars, so as to leave nothing to themselves. There is not a man in the members of the Five Nations who has gained his office otherwise than by merit. There is not the least salary or any sort of profit annexed to any office to tempt the covetous or sordid, but on the contrary every unworthy action is unavoidably attended with the forfeiture of their commissions, for their authority is only the esteem of the people, and ceases the moment that esteem is lost.

In the history of the world there is no other instance where such vast conquests were achieved with such limited numbers without superiority of arms. More than two hundred years ago, when the New England colonies were engaged in King Phillip’s war, commissioners were sent to Albany to secure the friendship of the Mohawks. Again, in 1684, Lord Howard, Governor of Virginia, met the sachems of the Onondagas and Cayugas in the Town Hall of Albany. These councils by the governors and agents of the colonies became almost annual affairs. The power of Colonel Peter Schuyler with the Iroquois at this day was deemed of the utmost importance by the crown. Perhaps no other man in our history exerted so great an influence over the course of events which shaped the destinies of our country. For he was a great man who lived and acted at a time when it was uncertain if French or English civilization, thoughts and customs would govern this continent. He and the chiefs who went with him to England were received with marks of distinction and unusual honor by Queen Anne.

The Hollanders were the first Europeans who were brought in contact with this people.

Before the Pilgrims had landed at Plymouth Rock, they had made a settlement on the Hudson, where the capital of our State now stands. At that time, the most commercial people of the world, their ships visited every sea, and they were accustomed to deal with all forms of civilized and savage life. In pursuit of the fur trade they pushed their way up the stream of the Mohawk, and by their wisdom and prudence made relationship with the Indians along its banks, which was of the utmost importance in the future history of our country.

The influence which the Hollanders gained while they held the territories embraced in New York and New Jersey was exerted in behalf of the British Government, when the New Netherlands, as they were then called, were transferred to that power. In the long contest, running through a century, known as the French war, the Dutch settlers rendered important service to the British crown. The avenues and rivers which they had discovered penetrating the deep forest which overspread the country now became the routes by which the armies of France and England sought to seize and hold the strongholds of our land. The power which could hold Fort Stanwix, the present site of Rome, the carrying place between the Mohawk and the waters which flowed through Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence, would control the great interior plains of this continent. If France could have gained a foothold in this valley, the whole region drained by the St. Lawrence and the Mississippi reaching from the Alleghenies to the Rocky Mountains, would have been her’s. Our history, usages, government and laws would have been changed.

He who will study European events for a hundred years before our revolution will be struck as to the uncertainties, as to the result. For a century the destinies of this continent vibrated with the uncertainties of the battle-fields of Europe. The crisis of our fate was during the reign of Louis the Great, when that ambitious and powerful monarch sought to extend his dominion over two continents. When Marlborough won victories at Blenheim, Ramilies and Malblaquet, or when Prince Eugene swept the French from Italy and crippled the power of France, they did more than they dreamed of. They fought for the purpose of adjusting the balance of the nations of Europe; they shaped the customs, laws and conditions of a continent. But the war was not confined to the Old World.

Standing upon the spot where we now meet we could have seen a long successien of military expeditions made up of painted warriors, of disciplined soldiers, led by brave, adventurous men, pushing their way through deep forest paths or following, with their light vessels and frail canoes, the current of the Mohawk. But arms were not the only power relied upon to gain control.

The missionaries of France, with a religious zeal which outstripped the traders greed for gold, or the soldiers love for glory, traversed this continent far in advance of war or commerce. Seeking rather than shunning martyrdom; they were bold, untiring in their efforts to bring over the savage tribes to the religion to which they were devoted, and to the government to which they were attached. Many suffered tortures and martyrdom, in the interior of our State, and on the banks of the Mohawk. There are not in the world’s history pages of more dramatic interest than those which tell of the efforts of diplomacy, the zeal of religion, or the heroism in arms of this great contest, waged so many years in the wilds of this country. If I could picture all the events that have happened here, they would invest this valley with unfading interest. Its hillsides, its plains, its streams are instinct with interest to the mind of him who knows the story of the past. It should be familiar in every household. But the grand procession of armies did not stop with the extinction of Indian tribes, or of French claims.

When the revolutionary contest began, the very structure of our country made the State of New York the centre of the struggle, and the valleys of the Hudson and the Mohawk, the great avenues through which war swept in its desolating course. It was most destructive here, for it brought all the horrors of Indian warfare. It is said that there was not one home in all this region which did not suffer from the torch or the tomahawk. Fortunately it was inhabited by a brave, hardy and enduring race, trained to meet and overcome the hardships of life. The homes of their fathers had been destroyed in Europe by the armies of France. The Germans brought here by the British Government during the reign of Queen Anne were placed between the English settlements and the savage tribes, because, among other reasons, it was said that their trials and sufferings had fitted them to cope with all the dangers of border life.

When we have thus had passed in review before us the bands of painted savages, the missionary armed only with religious zeal, and shielded alone with the insignia of his sacred calling; the gallant armies of France and Britain; the hasty array of our Revolutionary fathers as they rallied in defence of their liberties, we have then only seen the forerunners of the greatest movement of the human race.

With our independence and the possession and the mastery of this great continent began a struggle unparalleled in the history of the world. Peaceful in its form, it has dwarfed in comparison the mightiest movements of war. Its influence upon the civilization of the people of the earth, has thrown into insignificance all that modern victories and invasions have done. During the past hundred years there has been a conflict between the nations of Europe on the one hand, and our broad land and political freedom on the other- It has been a contest for men and women—for those who could give us labor skill and strength. We count our captives by millions. Not prisoners of war, but prisoners of peace. Not torn by force, but won by the blessings which the God of nature has enabled us to hold out to them in our fertile hills and valleys and plains. What were the hordes of the Persians? What were the array of the crusaders? What the armies of earth’s greatest conquerors, in comparison with the march of the multitudes of immigrants from the Atlantic, States or from Europe who have moved through the valleys of the Hudson and the Mohawk, the very gateways of our country seeking homes in the interior of our continent? Ours is a double victory, unlike war, which kills or enchains. It draws our opponents to our side, and makes them co-workers in building up our greatness and glory. As the men of every civilized race are pouring through our valley, we see before us the mightiest elements which are shaping the future of the human race.

What are all the problems of European diplomacy compared with these movements passing before us? All their recent wars, in the changes they have made are insignificant in comparison with the power we have gained by immigration alone. That procession of events, beginning with Indian warfare, and stretching through three centuries of battles for the possession, and the wars for the independence of our country, grows in importance and magnitude; and we see no end to its column as we look down into the dim future. The courses of the Mohawk and Hudson will ever be its greatest avenues. For here commerce pours its richest streams, and immigration leads its greatest armies. We are bewildered when we try to trace out the growth of the future. Each rolling year adds more than a million; each passing day more than three thousand; each fleeting hour more than one hundred to our numbers. The tide will swell still higher in the future.

I was once asked by a distinguished Englishman if we did not make a mistake when we severed our relationship from the British people? I told him that we were sometimes sorry that we let them go; that our mere increase in twenty-five years would exceed in numbers the population of Great Britain; that the British Isles would make glorious States of our Union; and that we needed them as outposts on the European shores. I was able to say this under the circumstances without violation of courtesy, and it was pleasantly received by a man whose mind was large enough not to take offense at the remark, which served to place the progress of our country in a strong light,

I have thus hastily sketched the interest which attaches to the whole course of the Mohawk Valley, with the view of throwing light upon the question which I put at the outset. Have we who live amid these scenes been true to ourselves, and true to our forefathers, by making this history an animating influence to promote the public welfare; to instill honorable pride in family circles, or quicken the minds with generous thoughts, which otherwise would have been dull and cold and sordid? The characters of men depend upon the current of thoughts which are passing through their minds. If these are ennobling, the man is constantly lifted up; it matters not what his condition may be in other respects.

If these are debasing, he will constantly sink in the scale of morals and intellect; it matters not what wealth or learning he may have. What men think not only in the hours study, but at all times and places, in the field, in the workshop, in the counting-room, makes their characters, their intelligence and their virtue. Men’s thoughts form and shape them. And those which relate to the past are most ennobling. For they are unstained by prejudice, and unweakened by sentiments which incline to detract from merits of living actors. We instinctively think and speak well of the dead. This of itself makes us better men. We can so learn the, histories of this valley, that its scenes shall recall them as clearly and as vividly as the pictures upon our walls. We can so stamp them upon our minds that its hills and plains and streams will be instinct with the actions of those who have gone before us that man has done himself a wrong who can look down upon the Mohawk; and not see the drifting along its current the savage, the missionary, or the soldier of the past. He who dwells upon its traditions; who can point out where men died in the struggles of war, where men suffered martyrdom for their faith—the spot where some bold stand was taken for the the rights of man and the liberties of country; he who feels the full import of the great movements of commerce and of men passing through this valley, certainly has an education that will always lift him up mentally and morally. You can not imagine a people living here with all these events stamped upon their minds, ever present to give food for thought and reflection, who will not be animated by a zeal for the public welfare, by generous impulses, by a self-sacrificing devotion for honor, for religion, for country. There is no teaching so powerful as that which comes invested with the forms of nature. It is that which reaches and tells upon the young and the old, the learned and the unlearned alike. Imagine two men living in this valley, both familiar with all its features, one well informed and the other ignorant of its events; then tell me if you believe that they can be alike in their moral natures or their value as citizens. In view of what I have thus said we can see why history is so potent. We can now see the wisdom, and the mercy too, of that command which tells us to honor our fathers and our mothers, though for many years and through many generations they have slept in their graves.

There are some reasons why the history of New York is not as well-known to the American people as that of other States. It has not excited the interest which justly attaches to it. The first settlers were Hollanders. When the Dutch made their settlement on this continent they were superior to other European nations, in learning, in arts, in commerce, and in just views of civil and religious liberty. Our country is indebted to them for many of the best principles of our goverment. But their language is no longer spoken here. In-comers from other States and nations exceed their descendants in numbers, and many of the traditions and events of its colonial period have been lost. This is true also of the German settlers in the valley of the Mohawk. The settlers who came into our State after the revolution, brought with them the ideas and sentiments of the places from which they came, and which, for a long time, have been cherished with more zeal than has been shown for the history of the State, where they have made their homes. These things created an indifference to the honor of New York. So far from preserving what relates to its past, in many instances old monuments have been destroyed, and names obliterated, which, if they had been preserved, would have recalled to men’s minds the most important incidents in the progress of our country. Nothing could have been more unfortunate than the acts which changed the name of Fort Stanwix to that of Rome, and that of Fort Schuyler to Utica. The old names would have suggested the circumstances of the French and Revolutionary wars. Of themselves they would have educated our people, and would have turned their attention to facts which they ought to know, but which have been thrown into the shade by terms which mislead. The existing designations, with their absurd and incongruous associations, divert the mind from these honorable memories.

The time has come when the people of New York owe it to themselves and to their country to bring forward their records, to incite a just measure of State pride, and to elevate our standard of public and private virtue by the influence of our grand history.

This should be taught in our schools, discussed, in our journals and made the subject of public lectures and addresses. Monuments should be put up to mark the spots where battles were fought and victories won, which have shaped the destinies of our country. When this is done, our own citizens, and the multitudes who traverse our valley, will see that within its limits all forms of warfare—that of Indian barbarism, disciplined armies, and of naval power have occurred within its boundaries. These prove the truth of the remark of General Scott, “that the confluence of the Mohawk and the Hudson has ever been the strategic point in all the wars in which our country has been engaged with foreign powers.

This work of making the details of our history known and felt by our people should begin in the heart of our State, in the valley of the Mohawk. Associations should be formed to preserve records and traditions that will otherwise be lost. Its old churches, which date back to the existence of our government, should be held sacred. The minor incidents of personal adventure, of individual heroism, should be preserved, for these show the character of the men and times in which they occur.

In no other quarter were the rights of the people asserted against the crown more clearly, or at an earlier day. It is not certain if the blood shed in the Revolution commenced at the battle of Lexington, or when the sturdy Germans were beaten down and wounded while defending their liberty pole against Sir John Johnson and his party.

I have refrained from want of time from presenting many facts and incidents which would give more interest to my address than the general statements I have made. Mr. Simms, to whom we are deeply indebted for long-continued and zealous researches into the history of this valley, has frequently given to the public sketches and narratives of great value. I trust the time has come when he and others who have labored in the same direction, will receive the sympathy and applause to which they are entitled.

Shall this centennial year be made the occasion for organizing societies in this valley, with a view, among other things, to the erection of monuments at different points along the Mohawk? I do not urge this as a mere matter of sentiment, but because I believe they will promote material welfare as well as mental activity and moral elevation. For these are ever found in close relationship. This whole region is marked for its fertility. It abounds with the material for varied industry, and is filled with streams with abundant power to drive all forms of machinery. It is in the heart of a great State, close by the leading markets of our country, and with cheap transportation to those of the world. Many millions in search of homes and for places to pursue their varied industry have passed by all these. I believe if we had shown the same pride in our State that has been exhibited elsewhere; if the minds of our people had been quickened, and their patriotism kept bright and burning by the examples of our fathers, that the Mohawk valley today would show a larger measure of power and prosperity than now blesses it. These things make a system of education, in some respects more active and pervading than that of books and schools. Subtle in their influences, they are not easily described, but they are felt and seen in all the aspects of society. Many years ago Congress made a grant to put up a monument over the grave of Herkimer. Attempts have been made to have the Legislature of our own State to mark in some suitable way the battle field of Oriskany. At the last session of the Legislature, the senator from Otsego and other members of that body made efforts to have something done in these directions. For one, I am grateful to them for their patriotism and the interest they have shown in these subjects. They did their duty when we neglected ours. And yet I rejoice in their failure. This pious work should be done by the people of this valley. They should not wait for strangers to come in to honor their fathers. There would be little value in monuments put up by mere legislative action, and at the cost of the State or national treasury. We want on the part of the people the patriotism which prompts, the intelligence which directs, the liberality which constructs such memorials. We want the inspiring influence which springs from the very efforts to honor the characters of those who have gone before us.

We want that which will not only remind us of the glorious acts of the past, but which will incite them in the future. Will the descendants of the Hollanders in the county of Schenectady be indifferent to this subject? Are the men of German descent, living in Montgomery and Herkimer, willing to have the services and sacrifices of their fathers pass into oblivion? Does no honorable pride move them to let our countrymen know that their homes suffered beyond all others, through the Indian wars and revolutionary struggles? Will they not try to keep alive in the minds of their countrymen the fact that the battle of Oriskany, which was the first check given to the British power in the campaign of Burgoyne, was fought by their ancestors and that its shouts and war-cries were uttered in the German language? Have they less public spirit than the Germans who have lately come to our country, and who have put up a monument to Baron Steuben? By doing so they honored one whose relationships to them were comparatively remote. Is it not true that men born in the valley of the Mohawk neglect the graves of their fathers, and forget the battle fields which have been made wet with the blood of those of their own lineage? The county of Oneida bears the name of one of the conquering tribes of the Iroquois. Upon the banks of the upper Mohawk, which flows through its territory, stood Fort Stanwix and Fort Schuyler. The former was for a hundred years during the wars between France and England, and at the time of our national independence, one of the most important military positions in our country. Near by was fought the battle of Oriskany, which was a part of the contest at Saratoga which won our national independence.

It was my purpose to give more value to this address, and to fortify its positions by presenting many incidents of a nature to interest and convince. But my health has not allowed me to refer to the proper books and documents for this purpose. I have therefore been compelled to speak more in general terms than I intended . What I have said is also weakened by the fact that I have not been able to take up and follow out my subject continuously and with clearness.

In particular, I wished to speak at some length of Fort Stanwix, Fort Dayton and Fort Herkimer, but I am unable to do so. Much also could be said about the old church at German Flats. Built before the revolution, for the Germans of the Palatinates, it has associations with the great political and religious struggles of Europe and America. Standing upon the site of a fort still more ancient, for it was built at an early period of the French war, it was for a long time the outpost of the British power on this continent. It has been the scene of Indian warfare; of sudden and secret attack by stealthy savages; of sudden forays which swept away the crops and cattle of feeble settlements; of assaults by the French; of personal conflicts which mark contests on the outskirts of civilization. It was the stronghold of our fathers during the revolution. The missionary and the fur trader more than three hundred years ago floated by its position in bark canoes, and in these later days millions of men and women from our own country and from foreign lands, on canals or railroads, have passed by on their way to build up great cities and States in the hear t of our continent. There is no spot where the historian can place himself with more advantage when he wishes to review in his mind the progress of our country to greatness, than the Old Church at German Flats. Looking from this point his perspectives will be just; all facts will take their due proportions; local prejudices will not discolor his views, and he will be less liable here than elsewhere in falling into the common error of giving undue prominence to some events, while overlooking the full significance of others more important. I hope the subjects of local histories will be taken up by our fellow citizens of this region, and the facts relating to them brought out and made familiar to us all.

I said at the outset that I did not come here to-day merely to appeal to your imaginations, or only to take part in a holiday affair. I come to speak upon subjects which I deem of practical importance to my hearers. If I have succeeded in making myself understood, I am sure, if you will look into these subjects you will find that all history, all jurisprudence, all just reasonings, force us to the conclusion that not only does a Divine command, but that reason and justice call upon us to honor our ancestors, and that there is a great practical truth which concerns the welfare, the prosperity, and the power of all communities in the words, “Honor thy father and thy mother that thy days may be long in the land which the Lord thy God giveth thee.

See also: 
The History and Events that Led to the Founding of the United States by Courtlandt Parker 1876
THE HAND OF GOD IN AMERICAN HISTORY by Rev Morgan Dix July 4th 1876 NYC
Non-Revisionist Politically Incorrect History of America from the Ancient Authors Part 1
RISE OF CONSTITUTIONAL LIBERTY by Dr. Richard Salter Storrs July 4 1876
OUR NOBLE HERITAGE by Hon. George W. Curtis (1824 –1892)
AMERICAN CITIZENSHIP! by Colonel Henry A. Gildersleve July 4th 1876 NYC
The Wisdom and Love of God as Shown by His Creation by Noah Webster
Non-Revisionist Politically Incorrect History of the World With Biblical References Part 1
POLITICAL CONSTITUTIONS by Johannes Von Muller (1832)

Non-Revisionist Politically Incorrect History of the World compiled from the original authors: Part 3

For the Non-Revisionist, Politically Incorrect History of the World: The Modern Part compiled from the Ancient Historians of the time.

I am giving you links to the books on the history of the world, that the Founder’s of the United States of America studied in their time. These are history books that were published in the mid-late 18th century, and were the most popular history books of that time period. There is ample evidence that the Founder’s of the United States studied these to aid them in gaining their perspectives of the world. I have divided the links into the different sections to make it easier for you, the reader to find the history that interests you.

NOTE: Remember when reading the Old English, the lowercase “F” in a lot of instances is equal to an “S”, example in the partial sentence “WE have feen, In the courfe”

It reads “WE have seen, In the course”

OR in this example “affuming the royal title of foltan only over their Seljuk fubjects, and their other conquefts : fo that, in order to fet forth the furprifing decline,”

It reads “assuming the royal title of Soltan only over their Seljuk subjects, and their other conquests : so that, in order to set forth the surprising decline,”

Persian_Empire

See also Non-Revisionist Politically Incorrect History of the World With Biblical References Part 1

Non-Revisionist Politically Incorrect History of the World With Biblical References Part 2

The modern part of an universal history from the earliest accounts to the present time; (1780) Volume 1

  • Contents:
  • Preface:
  • Chapter 1, The Life of Mohammed.
  • Chapter 2, The History of the Empire of the Arabs, under the First Four Khalifs.
  • Chapter 3, The History of the Arabs from the accession of the Family of Ommiyah to the transferring of the Khalifat to the Family of Abbas.

The modern part of an universal history from the earliest accounts to the present time; (1780) Volume 2

  • Contents:
  • Chapter 3: The History of the Arabs from the accession of the Family of Ommiyah to the transferring of the Khalifat to the Family of Abbas.
  • Chapter 4: The History of the Arabs from the Elevation of the Family of Abbas to the Throne of the Muslims, to the Taking of Baghdad by the Tartars.

The modern part of an universal history from the earliest accounts to the present time; (1780) Volume 3

  • Contents:
  • Chapter 4: The History of the Arabs from the Elevation of the Family of Abbas to the Throne of the Muslims, to the Taking of Baghdad by the Tartars.
  • Chapter 5: General History of the Turks, and the Empires founded by them in Tartary and Lower Asia, the Origin, Country, and different Tribes, or Branches of the Turkish Nation; with their Public Transactions till their destruction in Tartary.
  • Chapter 6, The History of the Seljukians of Iran, or Persia, at large, and of Kerman.
  • Chapter 7, The History of the Third Dynasty of the Seljukians, called that of Rum.

The modern part of an universal history from the earliest accounts to the present time; (1780) Volume 4

  • Advertisement (NOTE) To Readers Concerning this Fourth Volume
  • Book 1: General History of the Turks, and the empires founded by them in Tartary and the Lower Asia. Chapter 1: The origin country and different tribes or branches, of the Turkish nation with an account of their affairs till the destruction of their empire in Tartary. Section 1: The Origin of the Turks
  • Section 2: A General Description of Great Tartary, with an account of the Turkish tribes or nations inhabiting it, according to Arab authors
  • Section 3: An account of the Turkish tribes or nations, as delivered by the Turkish and Tartarian historians.
  • Section 4, The affairs of the Turks with the nations bordering on Tartary, and among themselves, from their first appearance, till the time of Genghis Khan.
  • Section 5, Character of the Turks before the time of Genghis Khan; and whether they were descendents of the ancient Scythians, or the present inhabitants of Tartary are descended from them.
  • Section 6: Of the original country inhabited by the Turks, with a description of the present Turkestan.
  • Chapter 2: The History of the Seljukians of Iran, or Persia, at large, and of Kerman. Section 1: The authority on which the Seljukians history is grounded.
  • Section 2: The origin of the Seljukians, and their entrance into Persia.
  • Section 3: Their transactions in Persia, and founding of their first monarchy there.
  • Section 4: The reign of Togrol Bek, (First Sultan)
  • Section 5: The reign of Alp Arslan, (Second Sultan)
  • Section 6: The reign of Malik-Shah I, (Third Sultan)
  • Section 7: The reign of Barkiarok, (Forth Sultan)
  • Section 8: The reigns of Mohammed and Sanjar. (5th & 6th Sultans)
  • Section 9: The reigns of Mahmud, Togrol, and Massud (7th, 8th, 9th Sultans)
  • Section 10: The reigns of Malek Shah II, Mohammed II, Soleyman Shah, Arslan, and Togrol II, in whom the dynasty ended.
  • Chapter 3: The Sultans of the second branch, or dynasty of the Seljukians, called that of Kerman.
  • Chapter 4: History of the third dynasty of the Seljukians, called that of Rum.
  • Section 1: Their dominions, conquests, establishment and succession.
  • Section 2: The reign of Sultan Soleyman.
  • Interregnum: (Interregnum is a period of discontinuity or “gap” in a government, organization, or social order.)
  • Section 3: Reign of Sultan Kilij Arslan I.
  • Section 4: The reign of Sultan Saysan.
  • Section 5: The reign of Sultan Massud.
  • Section 6: The reign of Sultan Kilij Arslan II.
  • Section 7: The reigns of Gayatho’ddin Kay Khosraw, Rokno’ddin Soleyman, Kilij Arslan III, and of Kay Khosraw a second time.
  • Section 8: The reigns of Sultan Kaykaws and Also’ddin Kaykokad.
  • Section 9: The reigns of Gayatho’ddin Kay Khosraw, and Azzo’ddin.
  • Book II: The history of the Moguls and Tartars from the time of Genghis Khan;
  • Chapter 1: A description of Western Tartary, as divided at present among the three branches of Mungls, or Moguls.
  • Section 1: Country of the Mungls properly so called.
  • Chapter 2: The country of the Kalka Mungls.
  • Chapter 3: The countries belonging to the Eluths, or Eluth Mungls.
  • Chapter 4: The conquest of Karazm, Great Bakharia and Iran (or Persia at large), till the defeat of Sultan Jalalo’ddin Mankberni.
  • Chapter 5: Conquests in Iran, from the battle of Indus, to Genghis Khan’s return into Tartary.
  • Chapter 6: Conquest of the kingdom of Hya, and progress in that of Kitay, till the death of Genghis Khan.
  • Book IV: The history of Genghis Khan’s successors in Mogulestan, or the country of the Moguls.
  • Chapter 1: The reign of Oktay Khan, second emperor of the Mungls.
  • Chapter 2: The regency of Tolyekona, and reign of Quey-yew Khan.
  • Section 1: The regency of Tolyekona, or Turakina Khatun.
  • Section 2: The reign of Quey-yew, or Kayuk Khan.
  • Chapter 4: The reign of Mengko, or Mangu Khan.
  • Chapter 5: The reign of Hu-pi-lay, or Kublay Khan.
  • Section 1: Progress of the War in China, till Peyen, or Bayan, was made Generalissimo.
  • Section 2: Pe-yen’s victories, and the ruin of the Song dynasty by that great Captain.
  • Section 3: Commencement of the Ywen dynasty, and its affairs, to the death of Hu-pi-lay.

The modern part of an universal history from the earliest accounts to the present time; (1780) Volume 5

  • Book II:
  • Chapter 6: The history of Genghis Khan’s successors in Tartary and China, The reign of Timur, called by the Chinese Chingtsong.
  • Chapter 7: The reign of Hayshan, called by the Chinese Vu-tsong.
  • Chapter 8: The reign of Ayyuli-palipata, styled by the Chinese Jin-tfong.
  • Chapter 9: The reign of Shotepala, called by the Chinese Ing-tsong.
  • Chapter 10: The reign of Yesun-temur, styled by the Chinese Tay-ting.
  • Chapter 11: The reign of Hoshila, known to the Chinese by the title of Ming-tsong.
  • Chapter 12: The reign of Tutemur, styled by the Chinese Ven-tsong.
  • Chaoter 13: The reign of Towhan-temur, styled by the Chinese Shun-ti.
  • Section 1: The distractions and rebellions which attended his bad government.
  • Section 2: The rise of Chu, or Hong-vu, and ruin of the Ywen dynasty.
  • Chapter 14: History of the Mungls, after their expulsion out of China, to the present.
  • Book III:
  • Chapter 1: The history of Juji, or Tuthi Khan, and his descendents, who reigned over the Kipjaks, with that of the Khans of Krim Tartary.
  • Book IV: The history of the princes of the race of Genghis Khan, who have reigned in the Great and Little Bukharia, with part of Karazm.
  • Chapter 1: A description of Great Bukharia.
  • Chapter 2: A description of Little Bukharia.
  • Chapter 3: The history of Great Bukharia, of Jagatay Khan, and his successors.
  • Chapter 4: The history of Little Bikharia, Of the descendents of Jagatay Khan, who reigned in Little Bukharia.
  • Book V: History of the descendents of Genghis Khan, who reigned in Iran, or Persia at large.
  • Chapter 1: The reign of Hulagu Khan.
  • Chapter 2: The reign of Abaka ll Khan.
  • Chapter 3: Section 1: The reign of Nikudar Oglan, or Ahmed Khan.
  • Section 2: The reign of Argun Khan.
  • Section 3: The reign of Gantaju Khan.
  • Section 4: The reign of Baydu Khan.
  • Section 5: The reign of Gazan or Kazan Khan.
  • Section 6: The reign of Aljaytu or Aljaptu Khan.
  • Section 7: The reign of Abusaid Khan.
  • Chapter 4: Dynasties which sprung up on the death of Abusaid Khan.
  • Section 1: The dynasty of the Il Khanians, The reign of Sheikh Hassan Buzruk.
  • Section 2: The dynasty of the Jubanians, or Chubanians, The reign of Sheikh Hassan Kujuk.
  • Book VI: The history of Timur Bek, commonly called Tamerlan, and his successors.
  • Chapter 1: The transactions preceding Timur’s reign.
  • Chapter 2: The exploits of Timur, from his enthronement, to the reduction of Iran, or Persia at large.
  • Chapter 3: Wars with the Kipjaks and Getes, Conquest of the countries to the Euphrates.
  • Chapter 4: Timur invades and conquers Hindustan.
  • Chapter 5: Timur overthrows Bayezid, and reduces Georgia. Dies on his march to conquer China.
  • Chapter 6: Distractions which arose on the death of Timur, and the usurpation of Kalil Sultan.
  • Chapter 7: The reign of Shah Rukh.
  • Chapter 8: The reign of Abusaid Mirza.
  • Chapter 9: Of the Princes descended from Timur, who reigned in Khorassan, and other parts of Iran, after the death of Shah Rukh.
  • Book VII: The history of the Shahs reigning in Persia.
  • Introduction: Of the Sosian family, and origin of the Shahs.
  • Chapter 1: The reign of Shah Ismael Sofi.
  • Chapter 2: The reigns of Tahmasp I, and Ismael II.
  • Chapter 3: The reign of Mohammed Khodabandeh, Hamzeh, and Ismael III.
  • Chapter 4: The reign of Shah Abbas I, surnamed the Great.
  • Chapter 5: The reign of Sasi, or Sesi I.
  • Chapter 6: The reign of Abbas II.

Continue in Part 4 (Still working on it)

Non-Revisionist Politically Incorrect History of the World With Biblical References Part 2

For the Non-Revisionist, Politically Incorrect History of the World: The Ancient Part With Biblical and other Historical Ancient References.

I am going to give you links to the books on the history of the world, that the Founder’s of the United States of America studied in their time. These are history books that were published in the mid-late 18th century, and were the most popular history books of that time period. There is ample evidence that the Founder’s of the United States studied these to aid them in gaining their perspectives of the world.

World map1

Continued from Part 1, This is a series of blog posts I am going to make concerning history.

These will tell you of the times, closer to the times those things happened, by the people who were there and those who were born, of those who were there.

HISTORY is, without all doubt, die most instructive and useful, as well as entertaining, part of literature-, more especially when it is not confined within the narrow bounds of any particular time or place, but extends to the transactions of all times and nations. Works of this nature carry our knowledge, as Tully observes, beyond the vast and devouring space of numberless years, triumph over time and make us, though living at an immense distance in a manner eyewitnesses to all the events and revolutions, which have occasioned astonishing changes in the world. By these records it is that we live, as it were, in the very time when the world was created; we behold how it was governed in its infancy, how overflowed and destroyed in a deluge of water, and again peopled; how kings and kingdoms have risen flourished, and declined, and by what steps they brought Upon themselves their final ruin and destruction. From thee and other like events occurring in history, every judicious reader may form prudent and unerring rules for the conduct or his life, both in a private and public capacity. But as the eminent advantages accruing to us from this valuable branch of learning, have been sufficiently displayed by many others, we shall not trouble our readers with a minute detail of them, but hasten to what is peculiar to the work, which we now offer to the Public.

The first set of links is to “An Universal History, From the Earliest Accounts to the Present Time: The Ancient Part, Compiled from Original Authors. Illustrated with Charts, Maps, Notes, & c. with a General Index to the Whole; (Volumes 13-18)

An Universal History, From the Earliest Accounts to the Present Time: The Ancient Part, Volume 13

  • Chapter 52, The History of Rome, from the Settlement of the Roman Empire to the Death of Nero, the last of the Family of the Caesars.
  • Chapter 53, The History of Rome, from the Death of Nero to the Death of Vitellius, when the Empire became Hereditary the Second time.
  • Chapter 54, The History of Rome, from the Death of Vitellius to the Death of Domitian, the last of the Twelve Caesars, in whom ended the Flavian Line.
  • Chapter 55, The History of Rome, from the Death of Domitian, the last of the Twelve Caesars, to the Death of Trajan, who brought the Empire to its utmost Grandeur and Extent.
  • Chapter 56, The History of Rome, from the Trajan to the Death of Marcus Aurelius, when the Power of the Roman Empire began to decline.
  • Chapter 57, The History of Rome, from the Death of Marcus Aurelius to the Death of Alexander, when the Empire was first transferred without the Consent of the Senate.
  • Chapter 58, The History of Rome, from the Death of Alexander Severus to the Captivity of Valerian, when the Empire was usurped by thirty persons at once, commonly called the Thirty Tyrants.

An Universal History, From the Earliest Accounts to the Present Time: The Ancient Part, Volume 14

  • Chapter 59, The History of Rome, from the Captivity of Valerian to the Resignation of Dioclesian.
  • Chapter 60, The History of Rome, from the Resignation of Dioclesian to the Removal of the Imperial Seat to Constantinople, by Constantine the Great.
  • Chapter 61, The History of Rome, from the Removal of the Imperial Seat to Constantinople to the Death of Emperor Julian.
  • Chapter 62, The History of the Eastern and Western Empire, from the Death of Emperor Julian to the Death of Valens.
  • Chapter 63, The History of the Eastern and Western Empire, from the Death of Valens, to the Division of the Empire.
  • Chapter 64, The History of the Eastern and Western Empire, from the Death of Theodosius the Great, to the taking of Rome the first Time by the Goths.
  • Chapter 65, The History of the Eastern and Western Empire, from the taking of the City by the Goths to the Death of Theodosius II.
  • Chapter 66, The History of the Eastern and Western Empire, from the Death of Theodosius II to the total Failure of the Western Empire in Augustulus.
  • Chapter 67, The History of the Eastern and Western Empire, from the Dissolution of the Western Empire to the Death of Justinian the Great.

An Universal History, From the Earliest Accounts to the Present Time: The Ancient Part, Volume 15

  • Chapter 68, The Constantinopolitan History, from the Death of Justinian the Great to the Deposing of Irene and the Promotion of Nicephorus.
  • Chapter 69, The Constantinopolitan History, from the Promotion of Nicephorus to the Death of Basilius II.
  • Chapter 70, The Constantinopolitan History, from the Death of Basilius II to the Taking of Constantinople by the Latins.
  • Chapter 71, The Constantinopolitan History, from the Expulsion of the Greeks to the Taking of Constantinople by the Turks, and the Total Destruction of the Roman Empire.
  • Chapter 72, The History of the Carthaginians, to the Destruction of Carthage by the Romans.

An Universal History, From the Earliest Accounts to the Present Time: The Ancient Part, Volume 16

  • Chapter 72, The History of the Carthaginians, to the Destruction of Carthage by the Romans.
  • Chapter 73, The History of the Numidians, to the Conquest of their Country by the Romans.
  • Chapter 74, The History of the Mauritanians, the entire Reduction of their country by the Romans.
  • Chapter 75, The History of the Gaetulians.
  • Chapter 76, The History of the Melanogaetuli or Nigritae, and Garamantes.
  • Chapter 77, The History of the Libyans and Greeks inhabiting the tract between the Borders of Egypt and the River Triton, comprehending Marmarica. Cyrenaica, and the Regio Syrtica.
  • Chapter 78, The History of the Ethiopians.
  • Chapter 79, The History of the Arabs, and their Ancient State, to Mohammed.
  • Chapter 80, The History of the Empires of Nice and Trapezond, from their Foundation, the former by Theodore Lascaris, and the latter by the Comneni, to their final Abolition, the one by Michael Palaeologus, the other by Mohammed the Great.
  • Chapter 81, The History of the Ancient State of Spain, to the Expulsion of the Carthaginians by the Romans; and briefly continued to the Descent of the Northern Nations.
  • Chapter 82, The Ancient State of the Gauls, to their Conquest by Julius Caesar, and from thence to the Irruption of the Franks.

An Universal History, From the Earliest Accounts to the Present Time: The Ancient Part, Volume 17

  • Chapter 83, The History of Ancient Germans, to their Irruption into the Roman Empire, Invasion of Gaul, and Expulsion from thence by the Franks.
  • Chapter 84, The Ancient State and History of Britain, to the Time of its being Deserted by the Romans, and the Invasion of the Angles and Saxons.
  • Chapter 85, The Ancient State of the several Northern Nations, to their Incursions into the Roman Empire; their several Expeditions, and mutual Expulsions, till the Settling on the Hunns in Hungary; of the Vandals, Visigoths, and Sueves, in Spain; of the Vandals, in Africa; the Franks, in Gaul; the Ostrogoths, in Italy.
  • Chapter 86, The History of the Ostrogoths in Italy, the Exarchs of Ravenna, and the Lombards in Italy.

An Universal History, From the Earliest Accounts to the Present Time: The Ancient Part, Volume 18

  • Chapter 87, The History of the Turks, Tartars, and Moguls.
  • Chapter 88, The History of the Indians. [India]
  • Chapter 89, The History of the Chinese.
  • Appendix, The Opinions of the most celebrated Philosophers with respect to the Creation of the World.
  • The History of the Etruscans.

An Universal History, From the Earliest Accounts to the Present Time: The Modern Part, Volume 19

An Universal History, From the Earliest Accounts to the Present Time: The Modern Part, Volume 20

  • Preface:
  • List of the Principle Authors
  • List of texts used in this work
  • Contents of the Twenty Volumes
  • A list of the Maps and Cuts in the Universal History Octavo
  • A list of the Names of such Subscribers as are come to hand.

Continued in Part 3

Non-Revisionist Politically Incorrect History of the World With Biblical References Part 1

For the Non-Revisionist, Politically Incorrect History of the World: The Ancient Part, With Biblical and other Historical Ancient References.

I am going to give you links to the books on the history of the world, that the Founder’s of the United States of America studied in their time. These are history books that were published in the mid-late 18th century, and were the most popular history books of that time period. There is ample evidence that the Founder’s of the United States studied these to aid them in gaining their perspectives of the world.

This is a series of blog posts I am going to make concerning history.

These will tell you of the times, closer to the times those things happened, by the people who were there and those who were born, of those who were there.

The first set of links is to “An Universal History, From the Earliest Accounts to the Present Time: The Ancient Part, Compiled from Original Authors. Illustrated with Charts, Maps, Notes, & c. with a General Index to the Whole; (Volumes 1-12)

The great value and importance of an Universal History formed upon a well-regulated plan, were so obvious to the learned world, that the work no sooner appeared, than it acquired a reputation, almost as extensive as its subject. It has not only met with the most favorable reception through all the British dominions, but has been translated into several languages, and cited, with marks of esteem, by the most distinguished writers in foreign countries.

Indeed its acknowledged usefulness, and obvious superiority, could hardly fail of procuring it the approbation of discerning readers. For the numerous performances, which, in other languages, under various plausible titles, implied something of the like nature, were either contrasted narratives of the four great empires, or imperfect views of the ancient and modern governments of many countries, accompanied with uninteresting, and often erroneous, chronological lists of emperors, kings, &c. They were nothing more than Tables of General History, inferior, in point of accuracy and method, to some Compilations which have been given to the world by more ingenuous authors, under that modest title.

Far different from the scope of those productions is that of the Universal History which is drawn from the most authentic documents of every nation, carefully collected, and diligently compared. The authorities are pointed out to the observation of the readers and by these means he is presented with an Universal Index of genuine History.

These, however, are not the only advantages of this great compilation. The clashing prejudices of the historians of different countries have been minutely examined, and their several degrees of credit scrupulously ascertained: the most extensive researches have been made for the development of truth; and the result is related with fidelity.

The Ancient History treats of empires and nations, which now no longer exist. They have been traced from their beginning to their extinction. Here the subject naturally concludes. — Arts, sciences, laws, and letters perished at the same time; and a long interval of darkness and barbarism ensued. Mighty and unforeseen revolutions took place in every part of the known world; a number of savage nations, and savage conquerors, appeared upon the scene. Their different migrations, contests, and establishments produced such political commotions as overwhelmed, or entirely altered, the ancient institutions, laws, languages, customs, manners, and police. New kingdoms and dates were formed. The annals of these kingdoms and states constitute Modern History. The investigation of the manner in which these events were effected, elucidates one of the most interesting subjects of historical inquiry, and leads a philosophical mind to useful, as well as comprehensive views of human nature.

But, auspicious to literature, and great as was the project of compiling the Universal History a variety of imperfections was unavoidable in the execution of this arduous and extensive undertaking. The work was conduced by different authors, who possessed very different degrees of ability, as well as peculiarities in their respective modes of composition. From these sources the narrative became exposed to blemishes, if not of an important nature, such at least as destroyed the harmony of the several parts, and that uniformity of texture which ought to have been conspicuous throughout the whole. In some parts, the work was too circumstantial in others too concise; and, in particular places defective for want of materials which more favorable opportunities, and farther investigation, have since concurred to supply.

One remarkable deficiency in the former edition is, that it contained no History of England, Scotland, or Ireland; though to every British subject a historical narrative of these countries must have proved equally interesting and useful. In the present, this palpable defect is to be s, by histories founded on the most impartial and authentic testimonies of each nation. Notwithstanding the last mentioned and other considerable additions, the work is much reduced in size, by retrenching superfluities.

In this Edition the plan is methodized; into accuracies corrected; and the style improved whereby, it is presumed, the work will be rendered a system of History, hitherto unequaled in extent of useful information, and agreeable entertainment.

Creation

These are the history books that were popular at the time of the Founding and that the Founders of the United States studied.

An Universal History, From the Earliest Accounts to the Present Time: The Ancient Part, Volume 1

  • Chapter 1, From the Creation to the Flood.
  • Chapter 2, From the Deluge to the Birth of Abraham.
  • Chapter 3, The History of Egypt to the Time of Alexander the Great.
  • Chapter 4, The History of the Moabites, Ammonites, Midianites, Edomites, Amalekites, Canaanites, and Philistines.
  • Chapter 5, The History of the Ancient Syrians.

An Universal History, From the Earliest Accounts to the Present Time: The Ancient Part, Volume 2

Book 1, The Asiatic History to the Time of Alexander the Great.

  • Chapter 3, The History of Egypt
  • Chapter 4, The History of Moab, Ammon, Midian, Edom, Amalek, Canaan, and the Philistines.
  • Chapter 5, The History of Ancient Syria.
  • Chapter 6, The History of the Phoenicians.
  • Chapter 7, The History of the Jews, from the Birth of Abraham to the Babylonish Captivity.

An Universal History, From the Earliest Accounts to the Present Time: The Ancient Part, Volume 3

Book 1, The Asiatic History to the Time of Alexander the Great.

  • Chapter 7, The History of the Jews, from the Birth of Abraham to the Babylonish Captivity.
  • An Appendix, Concerning the Rise and Progress of Idolatry, Witchcraft, and other Superstitions introduced among the Jews.

An Universal History, From the Earliest Accounts to the Present Time: The Ancient Part, Volume 4

Book 1, The Asiatic History to the Time of Alexander the Great.

  • Chapter 7, The History of the Jews, from the Birth of Abraham to the Babylonish Captivity.
  • Appendix to History of the Jews; Explanation of Solomon’s Temple, A Description of Jerusalem
  • Chapter 8, The History of the Assyrians.
  • Chapter 9, The History of the Babylonians.
  • Chapter 10, The History of the Phrygians, Trojans, Lycians, Lydians, & c.

An Universal History, From the Earliest Accounts to the Present Time: The Ancient Part, Volume 5

Book 1, The Asiatic History to the Time of Alexander the Great.

  • Chapter 10, The History of the Medes.
  • Chapter 11, The History of Persia.

An Universal History, From the Earliest Accounts to the Present Time: The Ancient Part, Volume 6

  • Chapter 12, The History of the Sycthians and Gomerians, their Migrations into Europe, under the several names inserted in the Margin.
  1. The History of the Celtes
  2. The History of the Sycthians
  • Chapter 13, The History of the Mysians
  • Chapter 14, The History of the Lydians
  • Chapter 15, The History of the Lycians
  1. The History of the ancient Cicilians
  • Chapter 16, The fabulous and heroic times,; containing the history of the ancient kingdoms of Sicyon, Argos, Attica, Boeotia, Arcadia, Thessaly, Corinth, of Sparta to Lycurgus and some others of less note, to their severally becoming commonwealths.
  • Chapter 17, The History of the Athenians.

An Universal History, From the Earliest Accounts to the Present Time: The Ancient Part, Volume 7

Book 2; The Grecian and Asiatic History.

  • Chapter 1, The History of Sparta, from Lycurgus, to its being joined by Philopoemen to the Acheans.
  1. The History of Lacedaemonia
  2. The History of Thebes
  3. The History of Achaia
  4. The History of Aetolia
  5. The History of Athens
  6. The History of Boeotia
  7. The History of Acarnania
  8. The History of Epirus
  9. The History of Ionia
  10. Appendix to the Grecian History; Xenophon’s Retreat
  11. The History of Sicily
  12. The History of Syracuse

An Universal History, From the Earliest Accounts to the Present Time: The Ancient Part, Volume 8 

  • Chapter 23, Section 7. The History of the Reign of Antigonus, and his son Demetrius, in Asia.
  • Section 8. The History of Macedon, from the death of Alexander to the Conquest by the Roman Empire.
  • Chapter 24, The History of the Seleucidæ in Syria, to the Reductions of the Dominions by the Romans. Table of the Kings of Syria, with the years of their respective reigns.
  • Chapter 25, The History of Egypt from the Foundation of that Monarchy by Ptolemy Soter, to its becoming a Roman Province.
  • Chapter 26, The History of the Armenians
  • Chapter 27, The History of the Kingdom of Pontus.

An Universal History, From the Earliest Accounts to the Present Time: The Ancient Part, Volume 9

  • Chapter 28, The History of the Cappadocians
  • Chapter 29, The History of the Kings of Pergamus
  • Chapter 30, The History of Thrace
  • Chapter 31, The History of the Ancient Kingdom of Epirus
  • Chapter 32, The History of Bithynia
  • Chapter 33, The History of the Kingdoms of Colchis, Iberia, Albania, Bosporus, Media, Bactria, Edessa, Emesa, Adiabene, Characene, Elymais, Comagene, and Chalcydene.
  • Chapter 34, The History of the Parthenians, from Arsaces to the Recovery of the Kingdom by the Persians.
  • Chapter 35, The History of the Persians, from their Recovering the Empire from the Parthenians to their being subdued by the Arabs.
  • Chapter 36, The Ancient State of Italy, to the Building of Rome.
  • Chapter 37, The Roman History, from Romulus to the Commonwealth.

An Universal History, From the Earliest Accounts to the Present Time: The Ancient Part, Volume 10

  • Chapter 38, The Consular State of Rome, from the Beginning of that Government, to the Burning of the City by the Gauls.
  • Chapter 39, From the Rebuilding of Rome, to the First Punic or Carthaginian War.
  • Chapter 40, The History of Rome, from the First Carthaginian War to the Second.
  • Chapter 41, The History of Rome, from the Beginning to the End of the Second Carthaginian War.

An Universal History, From the Earliest Accounts to the Present Time: The Ancient Part, Volume 11

  • Chapter 41, The History of Rome, from the Beginning to the End of the Second Carthaginian War.
  • Chapter 42, The History of Rome, from the End of the Second Punic [Carthaginian] War to the Destruction of Carthage.
  • Chapter 43, The History of Rome, from the Destruction of Carthage to the End of the Sedition of Gracchi.
  • Chapter 44, The History of Rome, from the End of the Sedition of Gracchi, to the Perpetual Dictatorship of Sylla.
  • Chapter 45, The History of Rome, from the Perpetual Dictatorship of Sylla, to the Triumvirate of Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus.
  • Chapter 46, The History of Rome, from the Triumvirate of Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus to the Death of Crassus.
  • Chapter 47, The History of Rome, from the Death of Crassus, to the Death of Pompey.
  • Chapter 48, The History of Rome, from the Death of Pompey, to the Death of Caesar.

An Universal History, From the Earliest Accounts to the Present Time: The Ancient Part, Volume 12

  • Chapter 49, The History of Rome, from the Death of Caesar, to the First Consulate of Octavianus.
  • Chapter 50, The History of Rome, from the First Consulate of Octavianus to the Death of Cassius and Brutus.
  • Chapter 51, The History of Rome, from the Death of Cassius and Brutus to the Settlement of the Empire by Octavianus.
  • Chapter 52, The History of Rome, from the Settlement of the Roman Empire to the Death of Nero, the last of the Family of the Caesars.

Continued in Part 2

See also Non-Revisionist Politically Incorrect History of the World compiled from the original authors: Part 3